Efficacy and safety of long-term treatment with calcium carbonate as a phosphate binder.
ABSTRACT The efficacy and safety of calcium carbonate as a phosphate binder was evaluated in 20 patients on chronic hemodialysis who had previously received aluminum hydroxide. During the control period the patients were on aluminum hydroxide and calcitriol therapy and had plasma phosphorus levels less than 6 mg/dL (4.95 +/- 0.8 mg/dL). Aluminum hydroxide was then discontinued and no phosphate binder was prescribed for 1 month. Every patient developed hyperphosphatemia so that calcium carbonate treatment was begun and calcitriol dose was adjusted in relation to plasma calcium changes. After 24 months of calcium carbonate therapy, plasma phosphorus was 4.85 +/- 0.7 mg/dL, using a daily dose of calcium carbonate of 2.57 +/- 1.3 g (range, 1 to 6 g). The daily dose per patient of calcitriol was not different from that prescribed during the control period, but in five patients calcitriol was permanently withdrawn for hypercalcemia. At the end of the study plasma calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone values were unchanged in comparison with the control period, whereas a significant reduction in plasma aluminum and plasma aluminum increase induced by deferoxamine infusion was observed. The frequency of hypercalcemic and hyperphosphatemic episodes during the last 12 months of calcium carbonate therapy (6.2% and 16.6%, respectively) was not different from that observed during the 12 months on aluminum hydroxide therapy preceding the control period (4.5% and 14.7%, respectively). It was concluded that calcium carbonate is effective in the control of hyperphosphatemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients on chronic hemodialysis and that the incidence of hypercalcemia is low when the daily dosage is less than 6 g.
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ABSTRACT: From chronic kidney disease (CKD) Stage 4 onwards, phosphate binders are needed in many patients to prevent the development of hyperphosphataemia, which can result in disturbed bone and mineral metabolism, cardiovascular disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism. In this review, we re-examine the use of magnesium-containing phosphate binders for patients with CKD, particularly as their use circumvents problems such as calcium loading, aluminum toxicity and the high costs associated with other agents of this class. The use of magnesium hydroxide in the 1980s has been superseded by magnesium carbonate, as the hydroxide salt was associated with poor gastrointestinal tolerability, whereas studies with magnesium carbonate show much better gastrointestinal profiles. The use of combined magnesium- and calcium-based phosphate binder regimens allows a reduction in the calcium load, and magnesium and calcium regimen comparisons show that magnesium may be as effective a phosphate binder as calcium. A large well-designed trial has recently shown that a drug combining calcium acetate and magnesium carbonate was non-inferior in terms of lowering serum phosphate to sevelamer-HCl and had an equally good tolerability profile. Because of the high cost of sevelamer and lanthanum carbonate, the use of magnesium carbonate could be advantageous and drug acquisition cost savings would compensate for the cost of introducing routine magnesium monitoring, if this is thought to be necessary and not performed anyway. Moreover, given the potential cost savings, it may be time to re-investigate magnesium-containing phosphate binders for CKD patients with further well-designed clinical research using vascular end points.02/2012; 5(Suppl 1):i62-i70. DOI:10.1093/ndtplus/sfr168
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ABSTRACT: Aluminum hydroxide gel (ALG) has been effective for ameliorating acidosis associated with phosphatemia caused by hemodialysis. However, aluminum accumulation in the body causes severe side effects. As substitute for ALG, a new type of aluminum oxide hydroxide (tentatively named PT-A) was prepared with the hope of future clinical use. PT-A has a microcrystalline structure with a high resistance to pH change and has more phosphate-binding efficacy than ALG. It was tested for possible interaction with protein by adsorption test, zeta-potential analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was chosen as a model protein. The interaction of BSA with PT-A depended on the amount of adsorbent. Protein adsorption occurred rapidly and reached the maximal level at near neutral pHs. Phosphate adsorption was not affected by the presence of BSA, but the interaction of BSA with PT-A was significantly reduced by the presence of phosphate. Zeta-potential changes on the surface of PT-A indicated that the positively charged surface of PT-A was covered with negatively charged phosphate ions that repelled negatively charged BSA molecules. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated no observable structural alteration caused by adsorption of BSA or phosphate, and scanning electron microscopy revealed that BSA covered the outer surface of PT-A but did not cover small pores, where phosphate can freely penetrate.Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 08/1992; 81(8):828-31. DOI:10.1002/jps.2600810822 · 3.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Studies with 1.75 mmol/L calcium dialysate have shown that patients gain calcium from dialysate. Thus, hypercalcemia, especially when calcium compounds are used for phosphate control, is a commonly seen complication. Dialysate with 1.25 mmol/L calcium has been available since 1989. Little is known about calcium mass transfer (CMT) with dialysate of this calcium concentration. CMT was measured in 20 stable adult peritoneal dialysis patients. Each CMT study consisted of a 2-L continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) exchange with a dwell time of 4 hours. CMT studies were performed using 1.25 and 1.75 mmol/L calcium dialysate with 1.5, 2.5, and 4.25 g/dL dextrose concentrations. CMT with 1.25 mmol/L calcium dialysate was compared to that with 1.75 mmol/L for each dextrose concentration. With a dextrose concentration of 1.5 g/dL, the mean CMT for 1.25 mmol/L calcium dialysate was -0.1 +/- 0.3 mmol versus 0.6 +/- 0.3 mmol for 1.75 mmol/L calcium dialysate (P < 0.0001). A dextrose concentration of 2.5 g/dL resulted in a mean CMT of -0.4 +/- 0.2 mmol for 1.25 mmol/L calcium versus 0.45 +/- 0.25 mmol for 1.75 mmol/L calcium (P < 0.0001). Using a dextrose concentration of 4.25 g/dL, the mean CMT was -0.7 +/- 0.25 mmol for 1.25 mmol/L calcium versus -0.05 +/- 0.35 mmol for 1.75 mmol/L calcium (P < 0.0001). Mean serum ionized calcium (SiCa) was between 1.15 and 1.20 mmol/L for all study groups. CMT inversely correlated with SiCa for each type of dialysate used. CMT was dependent on the concentrations of calcium and dextrose in the dialysate and the SiCa level at the time of the exchange.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)American Journal of Kidney Diseases 10/1992; 20(4):367-71. DOI:10.1016/S0272-6386(12)70300-1 · 5.76 Impact Factor