Cytotoxicity of amalgams.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to compare the relative cytotoxicity of amalgams and to determine whether their toxicity depends upon composition and aging time, by means of a rapid and sensitive in vitro cell culture test. Zinc-containing amalgams showed higher cytotoxicity than did any other amalgams. High-copper amalgams had the same cytotoxicity as did the low-copper amalgam. The addition of selenium did not reduce the cytotoxicity of amalgam. Moreover, excessive additions of selenium increased the cytotoxicity of amalgam compared with that of a similar selenium-free material. The cytotoxicity of amalgam was decreased with aging time, possibly due to the combined effects of surface oxidation and further amalgamation.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Jack L Ferracane, Dec 23, 2013
SourceAvailable from: Saman Warnakulasuriya[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human oral mucosa is subjected to many noxious stimuli. One of these substances, in those who have restorations, is dental amalgam which contains mercury. This paper focuses on the local toxic effects of amalgam and mercury from dental restorations. Components of amalgam may, in rare instances, cause local side effects or allergic reactions referred to as oral lichenoid lesions (OLLs). OLLs to amalgams are recognised as hypersensitivity reactions to low-level mercury exposure. The use of patch testing to identify those susceptible from OLL is explored, and recommendations for removing amalgam fillings, when indicated are outlined. We conclude that evidence does not show that exposure to mercury from amalgam restorations poses a serious health risk in humans, except for an exceedingly small number of hypersensitivity reactions that are discussed.BioMed Research International 07/2012; 2012:589569. DOI:10.1155/2012/589569 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The requirements of an ideal root-end filling are reviewed, before the demise of amalgam is considered. The focus is on tissue response to newer alternative materials: zinc oxide–eugenol cements, Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, glass ionomer cements, composite resins, compomers, and Diaket. The conflicting findings of in vitro and in vivo studies are analysed, as well as whether a root-end filling is necessary. The ‘apical seal’ is revisited with support for the concept of a ‘double seal’ that is physical and biological.Endodontic Topics 06/2005; 11(1):114 - 130. DOI:10.1111/j.1601-1546.2005.00164.x