Analgesic and antiinflammatory activity of constituents of Cannabis sativa L.
ABSTRACT Two extracts of Cannabis sativa herb, one being cannabinoid-free (ethanol) and the other containing the cannabinoids (petroleum), were shown to inhibit PBQ-induced writhing in mouse when given orally and also to antagonize tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA)-induced erythema of mouse skin when applied topically. With the exception of cannabinol (CBN) and delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 1-THC), the cannabinoids and olivetol (their biosynthetic precursor) demonstrated activity in the PBQ test exhibiting their maximal effect at doses of about 100 micrograms/kg. delta 1-THC only became maximally effective in doses of 10 mg/kg. This higher dose corresponded to that which induced catalepsy and is indicative of a central action. CNB demonstrated little activity and even at doses in excess of 10 mg/kg could only produce a 40% inhibition of PBQ-induced writhing. Cannabinoid (CBD) was the most effective of the cannabinoids at doses of 100 micrograms/kg. Doses of cannabinoids that were effective in the analgesic test orally were used topically to antagonize TPA-induced erythema of skin. The fact that delta 1-THC and CBN were the least effective in this test suggests a structural relationship between analgesic activity and antiinflammatory activity among the cannabinoids related to their peripheral actions and separate from the central effects of delta 1-THC.
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ABSTRACT: A new process for the preparation of 3,5-dihydroxy-1-pentylbenzene, which is used as medicinal intermediate and raw material for the synthesis of HIV restrainer, is proposed in this paper. Technical 3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid reacted with lithium hydride to form a salt (I) which acylated n-butyllithium directly to give 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-pentanone (II) in 85.06% yield. Then (II) was reduced through a Wolff-K-Huangminglong reaction at 210�C to give 3,5-dimethoxy-1-pentylbenzene (III). Finally, (III) refluxed with melt pyridine hydrochloride at 200�C for 2 h to afford the target product 3,5-dihydroxy-1-pentylbenzene (IV). The total yield of (IV) amounted to 61.50% and its mass percentage was 98.22%. The products were characterized by means of IR, 1H-NMR, GC and HLPC-MS. The results indicated that this synthetic route was feasible, characterized by simple process and higher yield, and superior to the published ones.Research on Chemical Intermediates 01/2007; 33(6):535-540. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recently, we reported that Alpinia katsumadai (AK) has anti-nociceptive activity in vivo and that cardamonin (CDN) from AK suppresses the activity and expression of transglutaminase-2 (Tgase-2). However, it remains unknown whether CDN contributes to anti-nociceptive activities of AK in vivo. We examined the anti-inflammatory effects of CDN in MG63 osteoblast-like cells and Raw 264.7 macrophage-like cells treated with interleukin-1β treatment. CDN suppressed the expression of Tgase-2, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and p65 (nuclear factor-κB) in a concentration-dependent manner, and restored the expression of IκB in MG63 and Raw 264.7 cells. However, CDN did not inhibit the activity of COX-2. Gene silencing of Tgase-2 reduced the COX-2 expression in MG63 cells. Phenylbenzoquinone (PBQ)-induced writhing, carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia, and rota-rod test were used to evaluate the anti-nociceptive activity in vivo. CDN (3-30mg/kg, orally administered) significantly inhibited PBQ-induced writhing. CDN also produced a significant, dose-dependent increase in the withdrawal response latencies in carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia. The effects of CDN on PBQ-induced writhing were not caused by impaired motor functions. These results suggest that CDN might be helpful to control the pain from inflammatory diseases.Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 01/2014; · 2.82 Impact Factor