Metallurgical Aspects of High-palladium Alloys

Department of Occlusal Reconstruction, School of Dentistry, University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Journal of Dental Research (Impact Factor: 4.14). 11/1988; 67(10):1307-11. DOI: 10.1177/00220345880670101201
Source: PubMed


Nine commercial high-Pd alloys were investigated. Microstructure and phase composition were screened by x-ray diffraction, light microscopy, and an electron microprobe. After being etched, some high-Pd alloys revealed dendritic structures. The others showed a more homogeneous structure with distinct grain boundaries. Etching was necessary to reveal distinct structures, though the overall etching effect turned out to be limited. On unetched specimens, only a slight chemical heterogeneity could be determined. Except for one alloy, the systems turned out to have complex multi-phase structures. The main face-centered-cubic (fcc) phase was Pd-based. As secondary phases, body-centered-cubic (bcc) and/or simple cubic ones were detected. The latter phases were similar to a Cu3Ga and PdGa intermetallic compound, respectively. Face-centered-tetragonal (fct) structures reported by other investigators were not found.

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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to use x-ray diffraction (XRD) to investigate four representative high-palladium alloys in the as-cast condition and obtain new information about the metallurgical phases. Two Pd-Cu-Ga alloys and two Pd-Ga alloys were cast into plate-shaped specimens (20 mm x 1.5 mm) which were bench-cooled. Polished and etched specimens were analyzed using two different x-ray diffractometers and CuKa radiation. All four alloys exhibited strong XRD peaks for the face-centered cubic (fcc) palladium solid solution matrix, and variations in the lattice parameter were consistent with alloy compositions. Comparison of the relative peak intensities for the alloys and the pure palladium powder standard indicated that the as-cast microstructures had preferred crystallographic orientation. Because the two Pd-Cu-Ga alloys contained appreciable amounts of near-surface lamellar interdendritic or eutectic constituents, it was possible to determine previously unreported XRD peaks for the Pd2Ga phase in these alloys. Low-intensity peaks in the Pd-Ga alloys were attributed to small amounts of secondary phases observed in the microstructures. Knowledge of the metallurgical structures of these high-palladium alloys can be important for interpretation of microstructural observations, mechanical properties, corrosion behavior and clinical performance.
    Dental Materials 06/1995; 11(3):154-60. DOI:10.1016/0109-5641(95)80011-5 · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to use x-ray diffraction (XRD) to obtain new information about the oxide layers on four representative oxidized high-palladium alloys. Cast specimens of two Pd-Cu-Ga alloys and two Pd-Ga alloys, with both polished and etched surfaces and air-abraded surfaces, were subjected to oxidation procedures recommended by the manufacturers. The specimens were analyzed by x-ray diffraction using CuK alpha radiation, and the peaks were compared to appropriate Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS). The surface preparation procedure had a profound effect on the phases present in the oxide layers. For the specimens that had been polished and etched, CuGa2O4 and beta-Ga2O3 were detected on the 79Pd-10Cu-9Ga-2Au alloy, whereas SnO2 and CuGa2O4 were detected on the 76Pd-10Cu-5.5Ga-6Sn-2Au alloy. The oxide layers on both Pd-Cu-Ga alloys contained Cu2O1 and the oxide layer on the 76Pd-10Cu-5.5Ga-6Sn-2Au alloy may contain beta-Ga2O3. The principal phase in the oxide layers on both Pd-Ga alloys that had been polished and etched was ln2O3, which exhibited extreme preferred orientation. No other phase was detected in the oxide layer on the 85Pd-10Ga-2Au-1Ag-1 ln alloy, whereas beta-Ga2O3 was found in the oxide layer on the 75Pd-6Ga-6Au-6Ag-6.5ln alloy. For the air-abraded specimens, beta-Ga2O2 was not present in the oxide layers on the Pd-Cu-Ga alloys, and beta-Ga2O3 was the major phase in the oxide layers on the Pd-Ga alloys. Palladium oxide(s) in varying amounts were detected for both surface preparations of the Pd-Cu-Ga alloys and for the air-abraded Pd-Ga alloys. Except for the 76Pd-10Cu-5.5Ga-6Sn-2Au alloy, the oxide layer caused minimal change in the lattice parameter of the palladium solid solution compared to that for the as-cast alloy. Knowledge of the phases found in the oxide layers on these high-palladium alloys is of fundamental importance for interpreting differences in the adherence of dental porcelain to the metal substrates under static and dynamic conditions, and may provide guidance in the development of new high-palladium alloys with improved metal-ceramic bonding.
    Dental Materials 12/1996; 12(6):333-41. DOI:10.1016/S0109-5641(96)80043-1 · 3.77 Impact Factor
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