Seven men and seven women, all of normal weight, were assessed by means of daily visual analogue scales for a two-week baseline period and for two weeks during which they were placed on a calorie-restricted diet. There were no significant changes in mood and no sex differences. Compared with the baseline, during the diet there were significant changes in their cognitions concerning eating: subjects were more preoccupied with thoughts about food, had strong urges to eat more frequently and were more likely to feel out of control of their eating.
"Restrained eaters exhibit significant differences versus unrestrained eaters in the performance of cognitive tasks, with restrained eaters exhibiting lower levels of sustained attention, recall, and working memory compared to unrestrained eaters (Green et al., 1997; Green & Rogers, 1995, 1998; Green, Elliman, & Rogers, 1995, 1997; Green, Rogers, Elliman, & Gatenby, 1994; Herman, Polivy, Pliner, Threlkeld, & Munic, 1978; Jones & Rogers, 2003; Rogers & Green, 1993; Shaw & Tiggemann, 2004; Vreugdenburg, Bryan, & Kemps, 2003; Warren & Cooper, 1988; Wing, Vazquez, & Ryan, 1995). Reduced working memory capacity may further make restrained eaters more likely to engage in rapid or heuristic rather than more detailed and systematic processing of packaging information including seals and claims. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Food packaging in general and packaging incorporating health messages in particular have been active areas of inquiry, receiving attention from policymakers and food manufacturers alike. This study explores the effects of package seals and claims on perceived product healthfulness as a function of dietary restraint status. A laboratory experiment using realistic three-dimensional packaging shows that for restrained eaters (i.e., those who try to restrict their food intake), nutrition claims on "healthy" products and nutrition seals on "unhealthy" products are effective at enhancing perceptions of product healthfulness. Unrestrained eaters, in contrast, are largely unaffected by nutrition seals and claims. These results provide insights into restrained eaters' purchase motivations, as well as guidance for policymakers seeking to regulate the use of seals and claims.
Health Communication 10/2013; 29(8). DOI:10.1080/10410236.2013.789131 · 0.97 Impact Factor
"Dieting— defined as an intentional, temporary reduction in caloric intake—is generally regarded as an ineffective long-term strategy for weight loss (Hill, 2004; Katz, 2005). Moreover, it has been associated with negative psychological outcomes , including depression and anxiety (Kovacs, Obrosky, & Sherrill, 2003; Warren & Cooper, 1988); decreased cognitive performance (Green & Rogers, 1995); and onset of binge eating, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa (Hsu, 1996; Patton, Selzer, Coffey, Carlin, & Wolfe, 1999; Wilson , 1993). Cross-sectional studies have consistently shown that adolescent girls who diet have higher levels of negative affect and psychological distress than those who do not (Neumark-Sztainer & Hannan, 2000). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a well-designed experiment, random assignment of participants to treatments makes causal inference straightforward. However, if participants are not randomized (as in observational study, quasi-experiment, or nonequivalent control-group designs), group comparisons may be biased by confounders that influence both the outcome and the alleged cause. Traditional analysis of covariance, which includes confounders as predictors in a regression model, often fails to eliminate this bias. In this article, the authors review Rubin's definition of an average causal effect (ACE) as the average difference between potential outcomes under different treatments. The authors distinguish an ACE and a regression coefficient. The authors review 9 strategies for estimating ACEs on the basis of regression, propensity scores, and doubly robust methods, providing formulas for standard errors not given elsewhere. To illustrate the methods, the authors simulate an observational study to assess the effects of dieting on emotional distress. Drawing repeated samples from a simulated population of adolescent girls, the authors assess each method in terms of bias, efficiency, and interval coverage. Throughout the article, the authors offer insights and practical guidance for researchers who attempt causal inference with observational data.
"The focus of attention is on either the diet or the craving experiences themselves. As an example of the former, a small group of normal-weight women and men were asked to follow an energy-restricted diet for a period of 2 weeks (5020 kJ (1200 kcal)/d and 6276 kJ (1500 kcal)/d respectively ) and to eat normally for 2 weeks (Warren & Cooper, 1988). It was found that all participants lost weight over the course of the diet, indicating compliance. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cravings are hedonic responses to food, characterised by their intensity and their specificity. Food cravings are extremely common, reported by the majority of young adults. They are closely associated with liking but not synonymous with increased intake. Structured interviews and prospective incident accounts of food cravings have succeeded in revealing a richness of information about their character, their antecedents and their consequences. In addition, laboratory investigations are adding to what is being learned from field and clinical studies. Taking dieting as an example of an assumed influence on food craving, the outcomes of cross-sectional studies are mixed and unconvincing. Prospective and experimental research shows a clearer relationship. Dieting or restrained eating generally increase the likelihood of food craving while fasting makes craving, like hunger, diminish. Attempted restriction or deprivation of a particular food is associated with an increase in craving for the unavailable food. This relationship suggests a variety of underlying cognitive, conditioning and emotional processes, of which ironic cognitive processes, conditioned cue reactivity and dysphoric mood are prominent. Food cravings may also be self-attributions, accounting for why a highly-palatable but self-restricted food is (over-)consumed. Overall, the popularised account of cravings as elicited by specific nutritional need is having to give way to a more subtle and complex appreciation of human eating behaviour.
Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 06/2007; 66(2):277-85. DOI:10.1017/S0029665107005502 · 5.27 Impact Factor
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