Psychological effects of dieting.
ABSTRACT Seven men and seven women, all of normal weight, were assessed by means of daily visual analogue scales for a two-week baseline period and for two weeks during which they were placed on a calorie-restricted diet. There were no significant changes in mood and no sex differences. Compared with the baseline, during the diet there were significant changes in their cognitions concerning eating: subjects were more preoccupied with thoughts about food, had strong urges to eat more frequently and were more likely to feel out of control of their eating.
- SourceAvailable from: Jason C G HalfordNature Reviews Endocrinology 12/2010; 6(12):663-4. · 11.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in appetite control is long established. Serotonergic manipulations reduce food intake in rodents in a manner consistent with satiety. In humans, drugs such as fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine and sibutramine all reduce energy intake, suppress hunger and enhance satiety. Effects on eating behaviour and subjective sensations of appetite are associated with the weight loss-inducing effects of these treatments. Currently, no appetite-suppressing drugs are approved specifically for the treatment of obesity. However, a new generation of serotonergic drugs have progressed through clinical development. The serotonin 5-HT(2C)-receptor selective agonist lorcaserin, a drug specifically developed to target satiety without producing the side effect profiles of its predecessors, has been shown to significantly reduce energy intake and body weight. The weight loss produced by lorcaserin appears modest, and behavioural effects, particularly its supposed satiety-enhancing effects, have yet to be characterized. The monoaminergic re-uptake inhibitor tesofensine has also been shown to produce impressive weight loss in smaller-scale clinical studies. It remains unclear if this drug produces any effects on appetite mediated by serotonin, or whether weight loss is produced largely through enhanced energy expenditure. Evidence indicates that tesofensine strengthens satiety, but behavioural specificity and psychological side effects remain an issue. The serotonergic system remains a viable target for anti-obesity treatment. In this review, we examine the limited behavioural data available on these two new CNS-acting appetite suppressants.Drugs 12/2011; 71(17):2247-55. · 4.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The current review considers satiety-based approaches to weight management in the context of health claims. Health benefits, defined as beneficial physiological effects, are what the European Food Safety Authority bases their recommendations on for claim approval. The literature demonstrates that foods that target within-meal satiation and post-meal satiety provide a plausible approach to weight management. However, few ingredient types tested produce the sustainable and enduring effects on appetite accompanied by the necessary reductions in energy intake required to claim satiety/reduction in hunger as a health benefit. Proteins, fibre types, novel oils and carbohydrates resistant to digestion all have the potential to produce beneficial short-term changes in appetite (proof-of-concept). The challenge remains to demonstrate their enduring effects on appetite and energy intake, as well as the health and consumer benefits such effects provide in terms of optimising successful weight management. Currently, the benefits of satiety-enhancing ingredients to both consumers and their health are under researched. It is possible that such ingredients help consumers gain control over their eating behaviour and may also help reduce the negative psychological impact of dieting and the physiological consequences of energy restriction that ultimately undermine weight management. In conclusion, industry needs to demonstrate that a satiety-based approach to weight management, based on single-manipulated food items, is sufficient to help consumers resist the situational and personal factors that drive overconsumption. Nonetheless, we possess the methodological tools, which when employed in appropriate designs, are sufficient to support health claims.Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 03/2012; 71(2):350-62. · 3.67 Impact Factor