The accuracy of therapists' interpretations and the outcome of dynamic psychotherapy.
ABSTRACT This study developed a measure of the accuracy of therapists' interpretations based on the core conflictual relationship theme method and examined the relation of accuracy to the outcome of dynamic psychotherapy. Accuracy was assessed on therapists' interpretations from two early-in-treatment sessions of 43 patients receiving moderate-length dynamic therapy. The results indicated that accuracy about the main wishes and responses from others that were expressed in the relationship themes was significantly related to outcome, even after the effects of general errors in treatment techniques and the quality of the helping alliance had been controlled for. Our hypothesis that accurate interpretations would have their greatest impact in the context of a positive helping alliance was not confirmed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Paul Crits-Christoph, Jun 20, 2015
- SourceAvailable from: Andrew James Gerber[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study examined whether the predominance of particular themes in maltreated pre-schoolers’ stories about relationships is related to type of maltreatment they experienced. The MacArthur Story Stem Battery was administered to 49 maltreated and 22 non-maltreated children. Children’s representations of self and other were extracted from the resulting stories using the Core Conflictual Relationship Theme Method. Significant differences were found among the physically abused, sexually abused, neglected, and comparison subgroups with respect to the predominance of specific relationship themes in their stories. Both physically abused and neglected children represented the self as angry and opposing others more frequently than non-maltreated children. Neglected children represented others as hurt, sad, or anxious more frequently than both abused and non-maltreated children. Compared with all other children, sexually abused children represented others more frequently as liking them, and compared with physically abused children, expressed more frequent wishes to be close to others. This study supports the hypothesis that maltreated children’s internal representations of relationships are related to their experiences of specific types of maltreatment.Review of Social Development 01/2001; 10(1):41 - 58. DOI:10.1111/1467-9507.00147 · 1.56 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of the reliability and base rates of the interpersonal contents of narratives told by patients in psychotherapy. Trained judges rated two samples, including 60 opiate-dependent patients in cognitive or psychodynamic therapy and 72 depressed patients in cognitive or interpersonal therapy. Using a comprehensive system based upon a circumplex model and involving 104 separate categories, we found that most categories of interpersonal behavior could be rated reliably. Potential problem categories were identified and strategies for increasing reliability are discussed. In particular, categories related to the concept of the introject (what the self does to the self) had low reliability. An analysis of the base rates of interpersonal themes revealed that issues related to autonomy/ assertion were most prevalent, although some differences between the two samples were evident. The implications of the results for research on narratives and models of psychotherapy are discussed.Journal of Clinical Psychology 10/1999; 55(10):1227-42. DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4679(199910)55:10<1227::AID-JCLP5>3.0.CO;2-S · 2.12 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Statement of the Research Problem Interpretation is generally held to be the major curative factor in psychoanalysis, psychoanalytic psychotherapy, and short-term dynamic psychotherapy. (Freud, 1912; Strachey, 1934; Luborsky, 1984; Arlow, 1987). Described by Bibring (1954) as the "supreme agent in the hierarchy of therapeutic principles" (p. 763), interpretation is regarded as a central activity of the therapist, around which other aspects of treatment are organized to maximize its effectiveness. Despite the consensus of its clinical import, there is no universally accepted definition of an interpretation. The concept of interpretation has evolved, as has its relationship to the therapeutic process. For Freud (1900, 1912, 1914), interpretation referred to the translation of the manifest into the latent content, whether this involved dreams, associations, symptoms, or behaviors of the neurotic patient. As the scope of psychoanalysis broadened to include patients with preoedipal and narcissistic pathology (referred to in this study as lower functioning), interpretation also acquired new dimensions. With lower functioning patients, the intent of interpretation shifted in relation to resistance, transference, and reconstruction. In a revised developmental and relational psychoanalytic framework, some authors (Ornstein and Ornstein, 1975; Pine, 1986a, 1986b, 1990) view interpretation primarily as a contact rather than a content or an insight promoting agent. In sharp contrast to traditional psychoanalysis of higher functioning (primarily neurotic) patients, with lower functioning patients, the transference neurosis is avoided in favor of providing a "holding environment" (non-interpretive intervention) (Winnicott, 1965). Such therapy is typically more active and supportive, as well as less intense and interpretive. In actual practice, however, most clinicians are reported to use a mixture of interpretive (expressive) and holding (supportive) techniques early in treatment and throughout its course (Luborsky, 1984; Waldinger, 1987).