Mold spore-induced respiratory allergy has been incompletely studied, and only a limited number of Fungi Imperfecti are well established as aeroallergens. Basidiomycetes, a complex and common group of fungi, which include mushrooms, rusts, smuts, brackets, and puffballs, have not been well studied. Although basidiospores can be present in high atmospheric concentrations, little is known of their aeroallergen potential. To examine this question, we performed skin prick and RASTs in 33 adult residents of Washington State using a panel of 15 common inhalant allergents that included four Fungi Imperfecti and 15 basidiospore extracts. Thirty-one of 33 (94%) subjects had positive immediate reactions to two or more common inhalants. Nine of 33 (27%) subjects responded to at least one Fungi Imperfecti; reactions were most common to Aspergillus sp. (21%), and least common to Penicillium sp., which were positive in 6%. Positive responses to basidiospore extracts were observed in 10 of 33 (30%) subjects. The prevalence of basidiospore reactivity was similar to that of Fungi Imperfecti, ranging from 18% for Scleroderma sp. to 6% for four different spore extracts. These results demonstrate that a significant number of subjects with respiratory allergies have skin test reactivity to basidiospore extracts, suggesting that these spores could be important aeroallergens in the Pacific Northwest.
") and up to 80% among asthmatics (Lopez and Salvaggio 1985). Various studies suggest that at least 3–10% of adults and children are affected by a fungal allergy (Kurup et al. 2000; Bush and Protnoy 2001); however, skin reactivities ranging from 3–91% have been reported depending upon the population studied, fungal extracts used and species tested (Lehrer et al. 1986; Sprenger et al. 1988; Horner et al. 1995). "
Medical Mycology: Current Trends and Future Prospects, 1st edited by Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Masoomeh Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Mahendra Rai, 08/2015: chapter 13: pages 315–333; CRC Press (Taylor & Francis Group)., ISBN: 9781498714211
"O'Neil et al. (O'Neil et al. 1990) also suggested that there are significant differences in reactivity between basidiomycetes and mitosporic fungi. A study performed in the Pacific Northwest of the United States found that prevalence of basidiomycete sensitization in that area was similar to that of mitosporic fungi (Sprenger et al. 1988). Recently, in studies performed in San Juan, Puerto Rico (located in the tropical environment of the Caribbean) with subjects suffering from respiratory allergies mitosporic fungi demonstrated lower reactivities to that of basidiospores and ascospores, and even lower than airborne fungal fragments (Figs. 4 and 5) (Rivera- Mariani et al. 2011a, b). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many known fungal species are grouped among basidiomycetes and ascomycetes. Active mechanisms of spore release into air currents are among the main features of these fungi. Aerobiological studies have described their presence in many regions worldwide. In some areas, fungi have been described as the predominant outdoor airborne biological particulate with much higher concentrations than pollen. Other studies have determined that among the fungal aerospora, the highest concentrations belong to basidiospores and ascospores. Nevertheless, the allergenic potential of spores from basidiomycetes and meiotic forms of ascomycetes has not been studied to the extent of mitosporic fungi and allergens from other sources. The need to further evaluate the role of basidiomycetes and meiotic ascomycetes in allergies is evidenced by the few genera with characterized allergens and limited studies that had demonstrated levels of sensitization similar or higher to that of mitosporic fungi and other allergens. In this review, based on the existing aerobiological, epidemiological, immunological, and molecular biology studies, we provide evidence that the role of basidiomycetes and ascomycetes deserves more attention with respect to their roles as potential aeroallergens.
"Some basidiospores are allergens (Santilli et al. 1985, Levetin et al. 1992, Horner et al. 1993). Sprenger et al. (1988) suggested that basidiospores could be important airborne allergens in the Pacific Northwest. It is necessary to study aerodynamics and temporal patterns of basidiomycetes so that such information can be applied to understanding human exposures and their effects on human allergies. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Release and dispersal of basidiospores of Amanita muscaria var. alba and their potential to infiltrate a nearby residence were investigated. Basidiospore release mainly occurred in the first three days following the expansion of the caps. The concentrations of released basidiospores near basidiomata were 77 137, 75 062, and 41 738 spores m(-3) in the first three days, respectively, with the highest concentration at 281 738 spores m(-3) air. After three days, the concentration dropped by 95%. At the second location, airborne basidiospore concentrations dropped 96-99% after three days with the concentrations of 940, 575, and 1359 spores m(-3) in the first three days, respectively. The diurnal pattern showed a relatively extended night peak. Relative humidity and dew were positively correlated with basidiospore release and short distance dispersal. Rain and rain rate were positively correlated with basidiospore release, but not correlated with short distance dispersal. The basidiospore release period of Amanita muscaria var. alba was short, but within such a period it released a large amount of basidiospores. However, only less than 5% of basidiospores released were dispersed to the second location 5.2 m away and 2.7 m above the basidiomata. Only < 0.1% of basidiospores dispersed from the basidiomata were found inside a nearby residence. Amanita muscaria var. alba showed a low potential of infiltrating the residence.
Mycological Research 12/2005; 109:1235-1242. DOI:10.1017/S0953756205003953 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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