Prevalence of basidiospore allergy in the Pacific Northwest.
ABSTRACT Mold spore-induced respiratory allergy has been incompletely studied, and only a limited number of Fungi Imperfecti are well established as aeroallergens. Basidiomycetes, a complex and common group of fungi, which include mushrooms, rusts, smuts, brackets, and puffballs, have not been well studied. Although basidiospores can be present in high atmospheric concentrations, little is known of their aeroallergen potential. To examine this question, we performed skin prick and RASTs in 33 adult residents of Washington State using a panel of 15 common inhalant allergents that included four Fungi Imperfecti and 15 basidiospore extracts. Thirty-one of 33 (94%) subjects had positive immediate reactions to two or more common inhalants. Nine of 33 (27%) subjects responded to at least one Fungi Imperfecti; reactions were most common to Aspergillus sp. (21%), and least common to Penicillium sp., which were positive in 6%. Positive responses to basidiospore extracts were observed in 10 of 33 (30%) subjects. The prevalence of basidiospore reactivity was similar to that of Fungi Imperfecti, ranging from 18% for Scleroderma sp. to 6% for four different spore extracts. These results demonstrate that a significant number of subjects with respiratory allergies have skin test reactivity to basidiospore extracts, suggesting that these spores could be important aeroallergens in the Pacific Northwest.
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ABSTRACT: Release and dispersal of basidiospores of Amanita muscaria var. alba and their potential to infiltrate a nearby residence were investigated. Basidiospore release mainly occurred in the first three days following the expansion of the caps. The concentrations of released basidiospores near basidiomata were 77 137, 75 062, and 41 738 spores m(-3) in the first three days, respectively, with the highest concentration at 281 738 spores m(-3) air. After three days, the concentration dropped by 95%. At the second location, airborne basidiospore concentrations dropped 96-99% after three days with the concentrations of 940, 575, and 1359 spores m(-3) in the first three days, respectively. The diurnal pattern showed a relatively extended night peak. Relative humidity and dew were positively correlated with basidiospore release and short distance dispersal. Rain and rain rate were positively correlated with basidiospore release, but not correlated with short distance dispersal. The basidiospore release period of Amanita muscaria var. alba was short, but within such a period it released a large amount of basidiospores. However, only less than 5% of basidiospores released were dispersed to the second location 5.2 m away and 2.7 m above the basidiomata. Only < 0.1% of basidiospores dispersed from the basidiomata were found inside a nearby residence. Amanita muscaria var. alba showed a low potential of infiltrating the residence.Mycological Research 12/2005; 109:1235-1242. DOI:10.1017/S0953756205003953 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bolete basidiospores at all locations showed diurnal patterns with night-time peaks. Bolete basidiospore concentrations inside a residence showed strong correlations with those on the outdoor deck. Dew and wind velocity correlated with both large and small basidiospores at all locations positively and negatively, respectively. RH was correlated with basidiospore concentrations outdoors, but not the small basidiospores on the deck. Rain was not correlated with bolete basidiospores. Airborne small basidiospores near the ground were correlated with the ones on the deck, but not so for large basidiospores. Spatio-temporal distributions of large basidiospores varied within a 5-m range. Human activity had a significant effect on large bolete basidiospores in the living room, but not on small ones. A significant number of bolete basidiospores entered the residence, and the concentration of small bolete basidiospores indoors reached 33301 spores/m3. However, overall the basidiospore concentration in the residence was 21 % of outdoor. INDEX TERMS basidiospore, boletes, diurnal pattern, meteorological factors, residence. INTRODUCTION The boletes, species of Boletaceae, are fleshy pore fungi and very common throughout the world (Bessette et al. 2000). Several hundred species are distributed in North America (Arora 1986). Bessette et al. (2000) described over 300 species in their book "North American Boletes." These macrofungi are among the most fascinating wild mushrooms and highly prized by edible mushroom collectors (Arora 1986, Bessette et al. 1997, Bessette et al. 2000, Laessøe 1998). The majority of boletes are ecologically interesting and important due to the symbiotic association: ectomycorrhizae these mushrooms developed with woody plants (Arora 1986, Bessette et al. 2000). During the fruiting season, basidiospores released from boletes could be significant to local airborne fungal spore compositions and populations due to the relative large sizes of basidiomata. Basidiospores in certain geographic areas in the world were a significant part of airborne fungi outdoors from summer to fall and were found to be dominant airborne fungal spores in Hamilton, Ontario and among top three dominant ones in Madras, India and Cagliari, Italy (Cosentino et al. 1990, Tarlo et al. 1979, Vital and Krishnamoorthi 1988). However, studies on airborne basidiospores have been scarce due to the difficulties of identification based on their morphological characteristics. Very few studies were specific on the taxonomic groups below basidiomycetes. Airborne Agrocybe, Chondrostereum purpureum Coprinus, Ganoderma, and Marasmius rotula were among the genera that were investigated (Craig and Levetin 2000, Dye 1974, Gilliam 1975, Henríquez et al. 2001, Li and Kendrick 1995a, Tarlo et al. 1979). Also, basidiospores are important airborne allergens in different geographic areas and may be particularly important in asthmatic patients (Helbling 1998, Lehrer et al. 1994, O'Neil et al. 1988, Sprenger et al. 1988). The infiltration of outdoor airborne bolete basidiospores into indoor environments have not been reported.Indoor Air 2005: Proceedings of The 10th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Beijing, China; 09/2005
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ABSTRACT: Aerobiological studies to identify Ganoderma basidiospores were conducted using Burkard Volumetric 7-Day Recording Sampler (Burkard Manufacturing Co. Ltd., England) at three separate cities in Saudi Arabia. At one site, Jizan, close to the coast of Red Sea, up to 17% of all basidiospores counted were identified as Ganoderma spp. while less than 1% Ganoderma spp. were identified at the two non-coastal sites. A clear seasonal pattern from late autumn to early summer (October-March) with a peak in December was recorded at Jizan and the maximum concentration of Ganoderma basidiospores reached 1.9×103 m−3 in December followed by 1.2×103 m−3 in January. The diurnal pattern of Ganoderma spore concentrations, when averaged over the year had late-evening maxima (a nocturnal pattern). However, other sites that showed low concentrations of Ganoderma basidiospores did not exhibit any peak or a high maximal level. The study demonstrates that even in a desert environment, airborne activities of Ganoderma basidiospores can be recorded. The impact of Ganoderma on asthmatic patients, particularly in such environments, needs to be investigated.Grana 06/2004; 43(2):111-115. DOI:10.1080/00173130410019613 · 0.94 Impact Factor