Probe-tube microphone measures in hearing-impaired children and adults.
ABSTRACT This study was designed to investigate the reliability of real-ear measurements of sound pressure level (SPL) and to compare these values with two coupler measures of SPL. A commercially available probe tube microphone system was used to measure real ear SPL in both children and adults. Test-retest reliability decreased as a function of frequency for both groups and, in general, was slightly poorer for the children. For both groups, coupler to real ear differences were larger for the 2 cm3 coupler than for the reduced volume coupler; however, no significant differences were observed between groups. In addition, a measure of ear canal volume was not found to be a good predictor of coupler to real ear discrepancies.
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ABSTRACT: A discussion of the protocols used particularly in the clinical application of the Desired Sensation Level (DSL) Method is presented in this chapter. In the first section, the measurement and application of acoustic transforms is described in terms of their importance in the assessment phase of the amplification fitting process. Specifically, the implications of individual ear canal acoustics and their impact on accurately defining hearing thresholds are discussed. Detailed information about the statistical strength of the real-ear-to-coupler difference (RECD) measurement and how to obtain the measure in young infants is also provided. In addition, the findings of a study that examined the relationship between behavioral and electrophysiologic thresholds in real-ear SPL is described. The second section presents information related to the electroacoustic verification of hearing instruments. The RECD is discussed in relation to its application in simulated measurements of real-ear hearing instrument performance. In particular, the effects of the transducer and coupling method during the RECD measurement are described in terms of their impact on verification measures. The topics of insertion gain, test signals, and venting are also considered. The third section presents three summary tables that outline the hearing instrument fitting process for infants, children, and adults. Overall, this chapter provides both clinical and scientific information about procedures used in the assessment and verification stages of the DSL Method.Trends in Amplification 02/2005; 9(4):199-226. · 1.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: future. In the early 1970s there were no universal new- born hearing screening programs. The average age of identification of children with hearing loss was 3-3 ½ years. Early efforts to improve this situation were a registry to identify newborns who are at high risk for hearing loss and development of the Crib-o-Gram (Simmons and Russ 1974; Simmons, McFarland and Jones 1979). While both procedures improved the early identification of children with severe-to- profound hearing loss, lesser degrees of hearing loss continued to go undetected. Diagnostic procedures to quantify the degree and configuration of hearing loss in infants were limited to behavioral observation audiometry, which is now known to be unreliable and prone to tester bias. Body-worn hearing aids and FM systems were the devices of choice for the pediatric population, but FM systems were used only in aca- demic settings. Most hearing-aid circuits were linear peak clippers, fitting algorithms were based on adult data, and functional gain was used to verify aided performance. At that time, audiologists