Orientation and spatial frequency selectivity of adaptation to color and luminance gratings.
ABSTRACT Prolonged viewing of sinusoidal luminance gratings produces elevated contrast detection thresholds for test gratings that are similar in spatial frequency and orientation to the adaptation stimulus. We have used this technique to investigate orientation and spatial frequency selectivity in the processing of color contrast information. Adaptation to isoluminant red-green gratings produces elevated color contrast thresholds that are selective for grating orientation and spatial frequency. Only small elevations in color contrast thresholds occur after adaptation to luminance gratings, and vice versa. Although the color adaptation effects appear slightly less selective than those for luminance, our results suggest similar spatial processing of color and luminance contrast patterns by early stages of the human visual system.
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ABSTRACT: The McCollough effect is an orientation-specific color aftereffect induced by adapting to colored gratings. We examined how the McCollough effect depends on the relationships between color and luminance within the inducing and test gratings and compared the aftereffects to the color changes predicted from selective adaptation to different color—luminance combinations. Our results suggest that the important contingency underlying the McCollough effect is between orientation and color—luminance direction and are consistent with sensitivity changes within mechanisms tuned to specific color—luminance directions. Aftereffects are similar in magnitude for adapting color pairs that differ only in S cone excitation or L and M cone excitation, and they have a similar dependence on spatial frequency. In particular, orientation-specific aftereffects are induced for S cone colors even when the grating frequencies are above the S cone resolution limit. Thus, the McCollough effect persists even when different cone classes encode the orientation and color of the gratings.Attention Perception & Psychophysics 04/2012; 62(4):659-672. · 1.97 Impact Factor
Article: The perceptual balance of color.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The cone contrasts carrying different dimensions of color vision vary greatly in magnitude, yet the perceived contrast of color and luminance in the world appears similar. We examined how this perceptual balance is adjusted by adaptation to the contrast in images. Observers set the level of L vs. M and S vs. LM contrast in 1/f noise images to match the perceived strength of a fixed level of luminance contrast. The perceptual balance of color in the images was roughly consistent with the range of contrast characteristic of natural images. Relative perceived contrast could be strongly biased by brief prior exposure to images with lower or higher levels of chromatic contrast. Similar adaptation effects were found for luminance contrast in images of natural scenes. For both, observers reliably chose the contrast balance that appeared correct, and these choices were rapidly recalibrated by adaptation. This recalibration of the norm for contrast could reflect both changes in sensitivity and shifts in criterion. Our results are consistent with the possibility that color mechanisms adjust the range of their responses to match the range of signals in the environment, and that contrast adaptation plays an important role in these adjustments.Journal of the Optical Society of America A 02/2012; 29(2):A108-17. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The standard view of neurons in early visual cortex is that they behave like localized feature detectors. Here we demonstrate that processing in early visual areas goes beyond feature detection by showing that neural responses are greater when a feature deviates from its context compared to when it does not deviate from its context. Using psychophysics, fMRI, and electroencephalography methodologies, we measured neural responses to an oriented Gabor ("target") embedded in various visual patterns as defined by the relative orientation of flanking stimuli. We first show using psychophysical contrast adaptation and fMRI that a target that differs from its context results in more neural activity compared to a target that is contained within an alternating sequence, suggesting that neurons in early visual cortex are sensitive to large-scale orientation patterns. Next, we use event-related potentials to show that orientation deviations affect the earliest sensory components of the target response. Finally, we use forced-choice classification of "noise" stimuli to show that we are more likely to "see" orientations that deviate from the context. Our results suggest that early visual cortex is sensitive to global patterns in images in a way that is markedly different from the predictions of standard models of cortical visual processing.Current biology: CB 04/2012; 22(9):781-6. · 10.99 Impact Factor