Orientation and spatial frequency selectivity of adaptation to color and luminance gratings.
ABSTRACT Prolonged viewing of sinusoidal luminance gratings produces elevated contrast detection thresholds for test gratings that are similar in spatial frequency and orientation to the adaptation stimulus. We have used this technique to investigate orientation and spatial frequency selectivity in the processing of color contrast information. Adaptation to isoluminant red-green gratings produces elevated color contrast thresholds that are selective for grating orientation and spatial frequency. Only small elevations in color contrast thresholds occur after adaptation to luminance gratings, and vice versa. Although the color adaptation effects appear slightly less selective than those for luminance, our results suggest similar spatial processing of color and luminance contrast patterns by early stages of the human visual system.
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ABSTRACT: The McCollough effect is an orientation-specific color aftereffect induced by adapting to colored gratings. We examined how the McCollough effect depends on the relationships between color and luminance within the inducing and test gratings and compared the aftereffects to the color changes predicted from selective adaptation to different color—luminance combinations. Our results suggest that the important contingency underlying the McCollough effect is between orientation and color—luminance direction and are consistent with sensitivity changes within mechanisms tuned to specific color—luminance directions. Aftereffects are similar in magnitude for adapting color pairs that differ only in S cone excitation or L and M cone excitation, and they have a similar dependence on spatial frequency. In particular, orientation-specific aftereffects are induced for S cone colors even when the grating frequencies are above the S cone resolution limit. Thus, the McCollough effect persists even when different cone classes encode the orientation and color of the gratings.Attention Perception & Psychophysics 04/2012; 62(4):659-672. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed for generating counterbalanced sequences for repeated-measures designs including those with multiple observations of each condition on one participant and self-adjacencies of conditions. Condition ordering is reframed as a graph theory problem. Experimental conditions are represented as vertices in a graph and directed edges between them represent temporal relationships between conditions. A counterbalanced trial order results from traversing an Euler circuit through such a graph in which each edge is traversed exactly once. This method can be generalized to counterbalance for higher order serial order carryover effects as well as to create intentional serial order biases. Modern graph theory provides tools for finding other types of paths through such graph representations, providing a tool for generating experimental condition sequences with useful properties. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).Psychological Methods 07/2012; · 4.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim was to investigate the temporal response properties of magnocellular, parvocellular, and koniocellular visual pathways using increment/decrement changes in contrast to elicit visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Static achromatic and isoluminant chromatic gratings were generated on a monitor. Chromatic gratings were modulated along red/green (R/G) or subject-specific tritanopic confusion axes, established using a minimum distinct border criterion. Isoluminance was determined using minimum flicker photometry. Achromatic and chromatic VEPs were recorded to contrast increments and decrements of 0.1 or 0.2 superimposed on the static gratings (masking contrast 0-0.6). Achromatic increment/decrement changes in contrast evoked a percept of apparent motion when the spatial frequency was low; VEPs to such stimuli were positive in polarity and largely unaffected by high levels of static contrast, consistent with transient response mechanisms. VEPs to finer achromatic gratings showed marked attenuation as static contrast was increased. Chromatic VEPs to R/G or tritan chromatic contrast increments were of negative polarity and showed progressive attenuation as static contrast was increased, in keeping with increasing desensitization of the sustained responses of the color-opponent visual pathways. Chromatic contrast decrement VEPs were of positive polarity and less sensitive to pattern adaptation. The relative contribution of sustained/transient mechanisms to achromatic processing is spatial frequency dependent. Chromatic contrast increment VEPs reflect the sustained temporal response properties of parvocellular and koniocellular pathways. Cortical VEPs can provide an objective measure of pattern adaptation and can be used to probe the temporal response characteristics of different visual pathways.Visual Neuroscience 11/2012; 29(6):301-13. · 1.48 Impact Factor