Microtiter method for MIC testing with spherule-endospore-phase Coccidioides immitis.
ABSTRACT A method was developed for susceptibility testing with spherule-endospore-phase Coccidioides immitis by using a microtiter format. Isolated endospores were used to inoculate wells containing modified Converse medium with various concentrations of azole or nikkomycin antifungal substances which then were sealed with an acetate film. The plate was incubated at 37 degrees C with shaking for 96 h, after which the control wells had visible turbidity and endpoints were discernible. Microscopic examination revealed that both control and treatment wells maintained cells predominantly in the spherule-endospore phase of growth.
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ABSTRACT: Nikkomycins X and Z, competitive inhibitors of fungal chitin synthase, were evaluated as therapeutic agents in vitro and in mouse models of coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, and blastomycosis. In vitro, the nikkomycins were found to be most effective against the highly chitinous, dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Blastomyces dermatitidis, were less effective against yeasts, and were virtually without effect on the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Additionally, by transmission electron microscopy, nikkomycin Z was highly disruptive to the cell wall and internal structure of the spherule-endospore phase of C. immitis in vitro. In vivo, nikkomycin Z was more effective than nikkomycin X, was also found to be superior on a milligram per milligram basis to the majority of azoles tested in the models of coccidioidomycosis and blastomycosis, and was moderately effective in histoplasmosis. A study of the pharmacokinetics in mice showed that nikkomycin Z was rapidly eliminated after intravenous infusion but that absorption after oral administration was sufficiently slow to allow inhibitory levels to persist for more than 2 h. Results of limited toxicology tests suggest that nikkomycin Z was well tolerated at the dosages employed.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 05/1990; 34(4):587-93. DOI:10.1128/AAC.34.4.587 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A new triazole, Bay R 3783, was compared with ketoconazole, itraconazole, and fluconazole, which were given via the alimentary tract at three dosages, and amphotericin B, which was given at 1 mg/kg intraperitoneally, in murine models of the systemic mycoses coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, and blastomycosis. In a pulmonary coccidioidomycosis model, Bay R 3783, fluconazole, and itraconazole were essentially equally efficacious and more active than ketoconazole in protecting mice against death; but they were inferior to amphotericin B. In a short-term organ load experiment, Bay R 3783 and amphotericin B were equally effective and were more effective than the other drugs in reducing the amount of Coccidioides immitis in the lungs. Against meningocerebral coccidioidomycosis, Bay R 3783, itraconazole, and fluconazole at 25 mg/kg and amphotericin B prevented death only during therapy, with mortalities ensuing shortly thereafter. In mice with systemic histoplasmosis, Bay R 3783 and itraconazole at 25 mg/kg and amphotericin B prevented death in all mice through a 44-day observation period. Clearance of Histoplasma capsulatum from organs was similar in mice treated with Bay R 3783 and itraconazole; this clearance was greater than that in mice treated with ketoconazole and fluconazole but less than that in mice treated with amphotericin B. In mice with systemic blastomycosis, Bay R 3783 at 25 mg/kg yielded 90% survivors at 60 days, which was greater than that achieved with amphotericin B (60%) or itraconazole (30%). Clearance of Blastomyces dermatitidis from the lungs was greatest with Bay R 3783, followed by that with amphotericin B, itraconazole, fluconazole, and ketoconazole, in that order. Therefore, Bay R 3783 showed effectiveness comparable to or exceeding those of itraconazole and fluconazole and exceeding that of ketoconazole against these systemic mycoses in mice.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 07/1990; 34(6):1132-8. DOI:10.1128/AAC.34.6.1132 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An evaluation of broth dilution antifungal susceptibility tests was performed by determining both the micro- and macrodilution MICs of amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, ketoconazole, and cilofungin against 38 isolates of Candida albicans, Candida lusitaniae, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Torulopsis glabrata. The following preliminary antifungal working group recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards for broth macrodilution tests with antifungal agents were used: inocula standardized to 1 x 10(4) to 5 x 10(4) CFU/ml with a spectrophotometer, RPMI 1640 medium buffered with morpholinopropanesulfonic acid (pH 7.0), incubation at 35 degrees C for 24 to 48 h, and an additive drug dilution procedure. Broth microdilution MICs were higher (two or more dilutions) than broth macrodilution MICs for all isolates tested with amphotericin B and for most isolates tested with ketoconazole, fluconazole, and cilofungin. MICs of flucytosine were the same by both techniques or lower by the broth microdilution test except in tests with C. neoformans. However, the only statistically significant differences between the two tests were observed with amphotericin B against all isolates (P = 0.01 to 0.07), ketoconazole against C. neoformans (P = 0.01 to 0.02), and cilofungin against C. albicans (P = 0.05 to 0.14). Tests performed with less dense inocula (1 x 10(3) to 5 x 10(3] produced similar results.Journal of Clinical Microbiology 07/1991; 29(6):1089-94. · 3.99 Impact Factor