Distinctive actions of epidermal growth factor-urogastrone in isolated smooth muscle preparations from guinea pig stomach: differential inhibition by indomethacin.
ABSTRACT Epidermal growth factor-urogastrone (murine EGF-URO) caused concentration-dependent contractile responses in preparations of longitudinal and circular smooth muscle derived from guinea pig stomach. The actions of EGF-URO in these two preparations were distinguished in terms of the ability of indomethacin to block EGF-URO-mediated contraction completely in the longitudinal muscle preparation but not in the circular muscle preparation. The EC50 for EGF-URO was 2 to 5 nM in the longitudinal muscle preparations and 20 to 50 nM in the indomethacin-treated circular muscle preparation. The action of EGF-URO in the longitudinal preparation also was inhibited by ibuprofen, aspirin and by anti-inflammatory steroids possessing an 11-beta-hydroxyl; the corresponding steroids lacking the 11-beta-hydroxyl substituent were inactive. In contrast, little or no effect of the anti-inflammatory steroids on the EGF-URO-mediated response was observed in the indomethacin-treated circular muscle preparation. Partial inhibition (about 30%) of the EGF-URO-mediated contraction of the indomethacin-sensitive longitudinal preparation was caused by mepacrine and p-bromophenyl-acylbromide, whereas esculetine, tranylcypromine, prazosin, yohimbine and cyproheptadine had no effect. The action of EGF-URO in both preparations exhibited marked tachyphyllaxis, which could not be attributed either to the production of inhibitory factors or to the disappearance of EGF-URO from the organ bath. The response of both preparations required the presence of extracellular calcium and was inhibited largely (90%, longitudinal preparation) or in part (69%, indomethacin-treated circular preparation) by verapamil.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), 2,2'-(hydroxynitrosohydrazino)bis-ethanamine (DETA/NO) and 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), NO donors which yield different NO reactive species (NO+, NO* and peroxynitrite, respectively), as well as exogenous peroxynitrite, on gall bladder contractility. Under resting tone conditions, SNP induced a dose-dependent contraction with a maximal effect (10.3 +/- 0.7 mN, S.E.M.) at 1 mM. Consistent with these findings, SNP caused a concentration-dependent depolarization of gall bladder smooth muscle. The excitatory effects of SNP were dependent on extracellular calcium entry through L-type Ca2+ channels. Furthermore, the contraction and depolarization were sensitive to tyrosine kinase blockade, and an associated increase in tyrosine phosphorylation was detected in Western blot studies. DETA/NO induced dose-dependent relaxing effects. These relaxations were sensitive to the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxidiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ, 2 microM) but they were not altered by treatment with the potassium channel blockers tetraethylammoniun (TEA, 5 mM) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM). When tested in a reducing environment (created by 2.5 mM 1,4-dithiothreitol, DTT), SNP caused a relaxation of gall bladder muscle strips. Similarly, the SNP-induced contraction was converted to a relaxation, and associated hyperpolarization, when DTT was added during the steady state of an SNP-induced response. SIN-1 (0.1 mM), which has been shown to release peroxynitrite, induced relaxing effects that were enhanced by superoxide dismutase (SOD, 50 U ml(-1)). The relaxations induced by either SIN-1 alone or SIN-1 in the presence of SOD were strengthened by catalase (1000 U ml(-1)) and abolished by ODQ pretreatment. However, exogenous peroxynitrite induced a concentration-dependent contraction, which was dependent on activation of leukotriene (LT) metabolism and extracellular calcium. The peroxynitrite-induced contraction was abolished in the presence of the peroxynitrite scavenger melatonin. These results suggest that SIN-1 behaves as an NO* rather than a peroxynitrite source. We conclude that, depending on the redox state, NO has opposing effects on the motility of the gall bladder, being a relaxing agent when in NO * form and a contracting agent when in NO+ or peroxynitrite redox species form. Knowledge of the contrasting effects of the different redox forms of NO can clarify our understanding of the effects of NO donors on gall bladder and other smooth muscle cell types.The Journal of Physiology 06/2001; 532(Pt 3):793-810. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 1. We have measured the contractile activities and relative potencies (EC(50)s) of six thrombin PAR(1) receptor-derived receptor-activating peptides (PAR-APs): AparafluroFRChaCit-y-NH(2) (Cit-NH(2)); SFLLRNP(P7); SFLLRNP-NH(2) (P7-NH(2)); SFLLR (P5); SFLLR-NH(2) (P5-NH(2)); TFLLR-NH(2) (TF-NH(2)) and a PAR(2) receptor activating peptide [SLIGRL-NH(2) (SL-NH(2))] (a) in a guinea-pig lung peripheral parenchymal strip preparation and (b) in a gastric longitudinal smooth muscle preparation. 2. The relative potencies of the PAR-APs in the lung preparation (Cit-NH(2) congruent with TF-NH(2) congruent with P5-NH(2) > P7 congruent with P5 congruent with P7-NH(2); SL-NH(2) not active) differed appreciably from their relative potencies in the gastric preparation: Cit-NH(2) congruent with TF-NH(2) congruent with P7-NH(2) congruent with P5-NH(2) > P7 congruent with SL-NH(2). 3. The contractile actions of the PAR(1)-selective peptide, TF-NH(2) in the gastric preparation were entirely dependent on extracellular calcium and were blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (genistein, tyrphostin 47/AG213, PP1) and by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, whereas in the lung preparation, the PAR(1)-mediated contractile response was only partially dependent on extracellular calcium and was refractory to the actions of either tyrosine kinase inhibitors or indomethacin. 4. Partial sequencing of the PAR cDNAs detected by RT - PCR both in whole lung and in the peripheral parenchymal strip bioassay tissue demonstrated the presence of both PAR(1) and PAR(2) mRNA; the expression of PAR(2) was detected by immunohistochemistry. 5. The data point to the presence of distinct receptor systems for the PAR(1)-APs in guinea-pig lung parenchymal and gastric smooth muscle and indicate that PAR(2) does not regulate contractile activity in peripheral parenchymal guinea-pig lung tissueBritish Journal of Pharmacology 01/2001; 132(2):556-66. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: From the individual perspective of the two authors who were long-time colleagues of Karl Lederis at the University of Calgary, the events and personal interactions are described, that are relevant to the discovery of Urotensin I (UI) in the Lederis laboratory, along with the concurrent discovery of Urotensin II (UII) in the Bern laboratory and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF/CRH) in the Vale laboratory. The fortuitous sabbatical experiences that put Professors Lederis and Bern on the track of the Urotensins, along with the essential isolation paradigm that resulted in the complete sequencing and synthesis of UI and UII are summarized. The chance interaction between Drs. Vale and Lederis who, prior to the publications of the sequences of UI and CRF, realized the sequence commonalities of these peptides with the vasoactive frog peptide, sauvagine, is outlined. Further, the relationship between the pharmacological studies done with UI in the Calgary laboratory and the more recent understanding of the biology and receptor pharmacology for the entire Urotensin I-CRF-Urocortin peptide family is dealt with. The value of a comparative endocrinology approach to understanding hormone action is emphasized, along with a projection to the future, based on new hypotheses that can be generated by unexplained data already in the literature. Based on the previously described pharmacology of the UI-CRF-Urocortin peptides in a number of target tissues, it is suggested that the use of current molecular approaches can be integrated with a 'classical' pharmacological approach to generate new insights about the UI-CRF-Urocortin hormone family.General and Comparative Endocrinology 06/2009; 164(1):7-14. · 2.82 Impact Factor