High dose intravenous methotrexate with leucovorin rescue in rheumatoid arthritis.
ABSTRACT Five patients with severe, treatment refractory rheumatoid arthritis were treated with high dose intravenous methotrexate (500 mg/m2) followed by leucovorin (50 mg/m2). Four courses of chemotherapy were given over a 2-month interval. At the end of the final course, there was a 50% or greater improvement in joint swelling and pain indices and morning stiffness in all patients. Clinical responses persisted for 6-14 weeks posttherapy. High dose methotrexate-leucovorin was associated with a significant reduction in DR antigen expression on peripheral Leu 2, Leu 3 and Leu 4 lymphocytes.
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ABSTRACT: Methotrexate-induced hepatotoxicity is well recognised in the treatment of leukaemia, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. The pathological lesions are non-specific, consisting of fatty change, nuclear pleomorphism, hepatocyte necrosis, portal chronic inflammatory infiltrate, fibrosis and cirrhosis. The mechanism of liver injury is poorly understood; intracellular accumulation of methotrexate polyglutamate and consequent folate depletion are suspected to play a role. Early studies in psoriasis clearly established a relationship of the hepatic injury with the frequency of methotrexate administration. With weekly low dose therapy, however, consensus is lacking regarding the incidence of hepatotoxicity because studies have had disparate control groups, used variable dosage regimens and often failed to document pre-existing liver disease or categorised patients at risk, i.e. elderly patients, alcoholics and obese diabetics. Moreover, current methods of assessing the degree of hepatic injury are subjective, relying on interpretation by an experienced histopathologist. Preliminary evidence suggests less frequent and less severe hepatotoxicity occurs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, probably as a result of lower methotrexate doses and better patient selection. Nevertheless, until the risk of serious liver disease is better defined it is recommended that patients have a pretreatment liver biopsy, a follow-up biopsy after a cumulative dose of 1500 mg, and then biopsies approximately every 2 years in the absence of other evidence of liver disease or risk factors.Medical toxicology 06/1988; 3(3):197-208. DOI:10.1007/BF03259882
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ABSTRACT: Most studies of immune function in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients treated with methotrexate (MTX) show only marginal effects on humoral or cellular immune responses. These include measurements of lymphocyte subsets, proliferative responses to mitogens, immunoglobulin production, rheumatoid factor and immune complexes. The mechanism of action of MTX in RA might be more antiinflammatory than immunosuppressive. This is supported by the rapid clinical response to drug treatment and by data from in vitro and animal studies. The inhibition of interleukin-1 (IL-1) activity or other inflammatory cytokines by MTX may play an important role in the antiinflammatory effect of MTX. MTX effects in RA are not fully understood and further studies are needed to clarify its mechanism of action. MTX has crucial effects on the cascade of events initiated by some cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor), which plays a major role in RA and other inflammatory diseases.Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism 01/1991; 20(3):190-200. DOI:10.1016/0049-0172(90)90060-S · 3.63 Impact Factor
- Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 09/1992; 51(8):1019-20. DOI:10.1136/ard.51.8.1019 · 9.27 Impact Factor