Physical activity and depressive symptoms: the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study.
ABSTRACT The relation between self-reported physical activity and depressive symptoms was analyzed for 1,900 healthy subjects aged 25-77 years in the Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (1982-1984) to the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I). Depressive symptomatology as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was examined by sex and race in relation to recreational physical activity and physical activity apart from recreation, controlling for age, education, income, employment status, and chronic conditions. Little or no recreational physical activity and little or no physical activity apart from recreation were cross-sectionally associated with depressive symptoms in whites and in blacks. After exclusion of those with depressive symptoms at baseline, recreational physical activity was an independent predictor of depressive symptoms an average of eight years later in white women. The adjusted odds of depressive symptoms at follow-up were approximately 2 for women with little or no recreational physical activity compared with women with much or moderate recreational physical activity (95% confidence interval 1.1-3.2). These findings are the first indication from a prospective study of a large community sample that physical inactivity may be a risk factor for depressive symptoms.
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ABSTRACT: Many studies have documented the negative effects of depression on adherence to recommended treatment; however, little is known about the mechanism underlying this relationship. Using the Kenny and Baron analytic framework of mediation, the authors assessed whether self-efficacy mediated the relationship between depression and medication adherence in 167 hypertensive African Americans followed in a primary care practice. Depressive symptoms are associated with poor medication adherence (beta=.013, p=.036) and low self-efficacy (beta=-.008, p=.023). Self-efficacy is negatively associated with medication adherence at follow-up (beta=-.612, p<.001). The relationship between depressive symptoms and medication adherence becomes nonsignificant when controlling for self-efficacy (beta=.010, p=.087). Implications for further examination into the mediating role of self-efficacy and the deleterious effect of depression on medication adherence are discussed.Health Education & Behavior 01/2008; 36(1):127-37. DOI:10.1177/1090198107309459 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Four hundred and twenty-two employees completed daily diaries measuring positive affect, negative affect, work hours, and health behaviors (snacking, smoking, exercise, alcohol, caffeine consumption) on work days over a 4-week period. In addition, measures of job demands, job control, and social support (iso-strain variables) were completed on 1 occasion. Multilevel random coefficient modeling was used to examine relationships between the job characteristics, daily work variables, and self-reported health behaviors. Results indicated a more important role for within-person daily fluctuations than for between-persons variations in predicting health behaviors. Whereas negative affect was negatively related to health behavior for both men and women, work hours had negative impacts for women only. Iso-strain variables showed few main effects and a modest number of interactions with daily variables (mainly for men). Findings point to the limited impact of stable features of work design compared to the effects of daily work stressors on health behaviors.Journal of Applied Psychology 12/2007; 92(6):1731-40. DOI:10.1037/0021-9010.92.6.1731 · 4.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the association between leisure time exercise participation and well-being (i.e., life satisfaction and happiness) and examined the causality underlying this association. The association between exercise participation and well-being was assessed in around 8000 subjects, (age range 18-65 years) from The Netherlands Twin Registry (NTR). Causality was tested with the co-twin control method in 162 monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs, 174 dizygotic (DZ) twin and sibling pairs, and 2842 unrelated individuals. Exercisers were more satisfied with their life and happier than non-exercisers at all ages. The odds ratio for life satisfaction given exercise participation was significantly higher than unity in unrelated pairs, and a trend was visible in DZ pairs. In MZ pairs, the odds ratio was close to unity. The pattern of odds ratios for happiness given exercise participation was similar. Exercise participation is associated with higher levels of life satisfaction and happiness. This association is non-causal and appears to be mediated by genetic factors that influence both exercise behavior and well-being.Preventive Medicine 03/2007; 44(2):148-52. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2006.09.002 · 2.93 Impact Factor