Gait analysis of cerebral palsy children before and after rhizotomy.
ABSTRACT Over the past decade, selective posterior rhizotomy has been used successfully to reduce spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy. Although clinical evaluation of these patients revealed functional improvement following surgery, more objective analysis of the outcome of this surgery was sought. Kinematic gait analysis of 14 patients with spastic cerebral palsy was performed before and after selective posterior rhizotomy. Measurements of stride length, thigh range of motion, knee range of motion, average speed of walking, and cadence were made. Statistically significant increases in stride length, thigh range and knee range were found. Average speed was increased and cadence was virtually unchanged. These results corroborate clinical findings of improvement in gait of spastic patients with cerebral palsy following selective posterior rhizotomy.
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ABSTRACT: To determine functional status of patients with cerebral palsy 20 years after they received selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR). A prospective 20-year follow-up study. Red Cross Children's Hospital (SDR operation and 1-year follow-up assessment) and at institutional or private locations nearby patients' homes (20-year follow-up assessment). Referred sample of 14 patients with spastic diplegia (6 women, 8 men; mean age, 27y; range, 22-33y) who were preoperatively ambulant and fulfilled strict selection criteria for SDR operation in 1985. Patients were assessed before and 1 and 20 years after SDR. Standardized assessments of function according to 2 dimensions of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model: (1) body structure and function (muscle tone, joint stiffness, voluntary movement) and (2) activity (rolling, sitting, kneeling, crawling, standing, walking, transitions) were obtained. In addition, based on assessments and questionnaires, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels were determined before and at 1 year after SDR retrospectively and currently at 20 years after SDR. One year after SDR, functional outcomes based on the 2 dimensions of the ICF model improved significantly, and these improvements were maintained at 20 years after surgery. Patients showed a shift in their GMFCS levels 1 and 20 years after SDR. In line with our 20-year follow-up study with gait parameters as outcome measures, patients with spastic diplegia still show improvements in their functional status 20 years after SDR. We acknowledge the presence of possible confounding factors and a small sample size, but we argue that the improvements found in this study were caused mainly by SDR. Finally, changes in GMFCS levels suggest a possible role for this tool to detect changes after an intervention.Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 07/2009; 90(6):994-1003. · 2.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Given the large number of cerebral palsy patients who have undergone selective dorsal rhizotomy in the past two decades, it is clearly imperative that the clinical community be provided with objective and compelling evidence of the long-term sequelae of the procedure. In the early 1980s, Peacock in Cape Town shifted the site of the rhizotomy from the conus medullaris to the cauda equina, and in the past 25 years, more than 200 children have been operated on. We have studied the incidence of spinal deformities after multiple-level laminectomy and recorded a 20% incidence of isthmic spondylolysis or grade-I spondylolisthesis. We have also conducted a long-term prospective gait analysis study on a cohort of 14 ambulatory patients who were operated on in 1985. Ten years after surgery, our patients had increased ranges of motion that were within normal limits. Step length was significantly improved, although cadence was unchanged postoperatively and was significantly less than normal age-matched control subjects. We have recently tracked down all 14 patients from the original cohort and are currently completing a 20-year prospective follow-up analysis of their neuromuscular function and gait. Our preliminary data suggest that selective dorsal rhizotomy is not only an effective method for alleviating spasticity but it also leads to long-term functional benefits.Child s Nervous System 10/2007; 23(9):1003-6. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) has been widely performed for the reduction of spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy during the past 2 decades. The objective of this study was to determine whether the surgery has yielded long-term functional benefits for these patients. The authors present results from a prospective 20-year follow-up study of locomotor function in 13 patients who underwent an SDR in 1985. For comparison, we also present gait data for 48 age-matched healthy controls (12 at each of 4 time points). Patients were studied preoperatively and then at 1, 3, 10, and 20 years after surgery. Study participants were recorded in the sagittal plane while walking using a digital video camera, and 6 standard gait parameters were measured. In this group of patients 20 years after surgery, knee range of motion (ROM) was on average 12 degrees greater than preoperative values (p < 0.001). Hip ROM before surgery was no different from that in the healthy control group. This parameter increased markedly immediately after surgery (p < 0.001) but had returned to normal after 20 years. The knee and hip midrange values-a measure of the degree of "collapse" due to muscle weakness after surgery-had returned to preoperative levels after 20 years, although they were respectively 11 and 8 degrees greater than those in healthy controls. Both temporal-distance parameters (dimensionless cadence and dimensionless step length) were significantly greater at 20 years than preoperative values (cadence, p = 0.003; step length, p = 0.02), leading to improved walking speed. Twenty years after undergoing SDR, our patients showed improved locomotor function compared with their preoperative status.Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 03/2008; 1(3):180-6. · 1.63 Impact Factor