Gait analysis of cerebral palsy children before and after rhizotomy
ABSTRACT Over the past decade, selective posterior rhizotomy has been used successfully to reduce spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy. Although clinical evaluation of these patients revealed functional improvement following surgery, more objective analysis of the outcome of this surgery was sought. Kinematic gait analysis of 14 patients with spastic cerebral palsy was performed before and after selective posterior rhizotomy. Measurements of stride length, thigh range of motion, knee range of motion, average speed of walking, and cadence were made. Statistically significant increases in stride length, thigh range and knee range were found. Average speed was increased and cadence was virtually unchanged. These results corroborate clinical findings of improvement in gait of spastic patients with cerebral palsy following selective posterior rhizotomy.
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- "In these cases the electromyographic activity of the muscles assessed is generally characterized by the temporal (on/off) phasic behavior of the muscles relative to the desired movement . Vaughan and colleagues   have advocated a need for studies to integrate motion data with electromyographic data, and we believe this integration can extend beyond an examination of the temporal activity of the muscles. Furthermore, as implied by its very name, gait analysis is limited to those individuals who are capable of ambulation. "
ABSTRACT: Cerebral palsy is a condition that results in varying degrees of functional deficits. The goal of this study was to develop an objective measure of muscle activity during a prescribed voluntary motor task in non-ambulatory children with spastic cerebral palsy. While performing a simultaneous hip/knee flexion task from the supine position, followed by return to the starting position, electromyographic and kinematic data were obtained from the right leg of eight children before and after selective dorsal rhizotomy and compared with eight age-matched controls. The electromyographic and kinematic data were combined to determine for each muscle of interest (tibialis anterior, soleus, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris) the percentage of the movement cycle for which the muscle was acting concentrically, eccentrically, isometrically or was considered inactive. Averaged over the four muscles, isometric activity decreased by 38% post-op and the time the muscles were inactive increased by 37% following surgery. The percentages of concentric and eccentric activity did not differ significantly between pre- and post-op conditions. Post-operatively, the percentage muscle activity patterns of the children with cerebral palsy more closely resembled that of the control children: averaged across all muscles and contraction types, the difference between the control children and the children with cerebral palsy was reduced by 50% following surgery. This measurement technique indicates promise as a method for quantifying muscle activity during voluntary motor tasks in non-ambulatory children with cerebral palsy.Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 03/2001; 11(1):31-7. DOI:10.1016/S1050-6411(00)00035-3 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A recent increase in the popularity of selective rhizotomy for reduction of spasticity in cerebral palsy has led to a demand for more objective studies of outcome and long-term follow-up results. The authors present the results of gait analysis on 14 children with spastic cerebral palsy, who underwent selective posterior rhizotomy in 1985. Sagittal plane gait patterns were studied before surgery and at 1 and 3 years after surgery using a digital camera system. The parameters measured included the range of motion at the knee and thigh, stride length, speed of walking, and cadence. The range of motion at the knee was significantly increased at 1 year after surgery and further improved to a nearly normal range at 3 years after surgery. In contrast, postoperative measurements of thigh range exceeded normal values at 1 year, but decreased toward normal range at 3 years. While improvements in range of motion continued between Years 1 and 3, the children developed a more extended thigh and knee position, which indicated a more upright walking posture. Stride length and speed of walking also improved, while cadence remained essentially unchanged. This 3-year follow-up study, the first to examine rhizotomy using an objective approach, has provided some encouraging results regarding early functional outcome.Journal of Neurosurgery 03/1991; 74(2):178-84. DOI:10.3171/jns.1991.74.2.0178 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The recent increase in popularity of selective posterior rhizotomy demands objective documentation of surgical outcome. For this reason, the authors have analyzed the status of 25 children with spastic cerebral palsy before and after rhizotomy to determine the effects of this therapy on muscle tone, range of movement, and motor function. Postoperative tests showed a reduction in muscle tone compared with preoperative assessments. Range of motion in the lower extremities was significantly increased and improvements in functional gross motor skills were noted. An increase in range of motion in the knees and thighs during gait was detected in 18 ambulatory patients studied with computerized two-dimensional motion analysis. Preliminary findings indicate that selective posterior rhizotomy reduced spasticity, thereby increasing range of motion and contributing to improvements in active functional mobility.Journal of Neurosurgery 04/1991; 74(3):380-5. DOI:10.3171/jns.1991.74.3.0380 · 3.23 Impact Factor