A non-AUG translational initiation in c-myc exon 1 generates an N-terminally distinct protein whose synthesis is disrupted in Burkitt's lymphomas.
ABSTRACT The c-myc gene comprises three exons with a single large AUG-initiated open reading frame extending from exon 2 through exon 3. Exon 1 lacks any AUG codons. Cells from a wide range of species produce two c-myc proteins that, while highly related, do not appear to arise from posttranslational interconversion. To understand the origin of the two proteins, we mapped them and analyzed the in vitro protein-coding capacity of c-myc cDNAs. Our findings show that the two proteins are derived from alternative translational initiations at the exon 2 AUG and at a non-AUG codon near the 3' end of exon 1, resulting in the production of proteins with distinct N termini. In Burkitt's lymphomas, the removal or specific mutation of exon 1 in c-myc translocations correlates with suppression of synthesis of the larger protein, and thus may contribute to the oncogenic activation of c-myc.
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ABSTRACT: RNA-mediated mechanisms of disease pathogenesis in neurological disorders have been recognized in the context of certain repeat expansion disorders. This RNA-initiated neurodegeneration may play a more pervasive role in disease pathology beyond the classic dynamic mutation disorders. Here, we review the mechanisms of RNA toxicity and aberrant RNA processing that have been implicated in ageing-related neurological disorders. We focus on diseases with aberrant sequestration of RNA-binding proteins, bi-directional transcription, aberrant translation of repeat expansion RNA transcripts (repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation), and the formation of pathological RNA:DNA secondary structure (R-loop). It is likely that repeat expansion disorders arise from common mechanisms caused by the repeat expansion mutations. However, the context of the repeat expansion determines the specific molecular consequences, leading to clinically distinct disorders.Journal of Genetics and Genomics 09/2014; 41(9):473-484. DOI:10.1016/j.jgg.2014.08.003 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ability to sequence genomes has far outstripped approaches for deciphering the information they encode. Here we present a suite of techniques, based on ribosome profiling (the deep sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments), to provide genome-wide maps of protein synthesis as well as a pulse-chase strategy for determining rates of translation elongation. We exploit the propensity of harringtonine to cause ribosomes to accumulate at sites of translation initiation together with a machine learning algorithm to define protein products systematically. Analysis of translation in mouse embryonic stem cells reveals thousands of strong pause sites and unannotated translation products. These include amino-terminal extensions and truncations and upstream open reading frames with regulatory potential, initiated at both AUG and non-AUG codons, whose translation changes after differentiation. We also define a class of short, polycistronic ribosome-associated coding RNAs (sprcRNAs) that encode small proteins. Our studies reveal an unanticipated complexity to mammalian proteomes.Cell 11/2011; 147(4):789-802. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2011.10.002 · 33.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Potassium-selective ion channels regulate cardiac and neuronal excitability by stabilizing the resting membrane potential and by modulating shape and frequency of action potentials. The delicate control of membrane voltage requires structural and functional diversity of K+ channel subunits expressed in a given cell. Here we reveal a previously unrecognized biological mechanism. Tissue-specific mRNA splicing regulates alternative translation initiation (ATI) of human K(2P)10.1 K+ background channels via recombination of 5 nucleotide motifs. ATI-dependent expression of full-length protein or truncated subunits initiated from two downstream start codons determines macroscopic current amplitudes and biophysical properties of hK(2P)10.1 channels. The interaction between hK(2P)10.1 mRNA splicing, translation and function increases K+ channel complexity and is expected to contribute to electrophysiological plasticity of excitable cells.The Journal of Physiology 06/2011; 589(Pt 15):3709-20. DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2011.210666 · 4.54 Impact Factor