Management of lipids in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
ABSTRACT Although the frequency of cardiovascular disease is declining, it remains a major present and future threat to health in the United States. The deleterious effects of abnormal blood lipid concentrations have long been recognized, but the benefit of corrective intervention in this process has only recently been demonstrated. We review the major lipid abnormalities and the available clinical therapeutic interventions. In addition, we discuss data that address the premise that reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol should decrease the progression of coronary atherosclerosis, and we summarize drug trials in which clofibrate, niacin, cholestyramine, and gemfibrozil decreased coronary heart disease events. Studies that used cholestyramine and the combination of colestipol and niacin resulted in decreased progression of coronary artery disease. On the basis of early experience with lovastatin, inhibitors of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase are likely to be effective in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. The available information on the association of low cholesterol levels and cancer suggests that low total cholesterol is a consequence rather than a cause of carcinoma. Current data strongly support the concept of vigorous intervention directed at management of lipids, both with non-pharmacologic treatment and with drug therapy, for the primary and secondary prevention of coronary atherosclerosis.
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ABSTRACT: Omega-3 fatty acid therapy shows great promise in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular (CV) diseases, especially coronary heart disease (CHD). In this review, we discuss the evidence available from prospective and retrospective observational epidemiologic studies and controlled clinical trials demonstrating the effects of omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil) in primary and especially secondary prevention of major CV events, including CV mortality, fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Significant reductions in total mortality and SCD to the extent of 20% to 50% have been found in studies using doses ranging from 0.85 to 4.0 g/d. We review the compelling evidence that indicates all clinicians should strongly consider therapy with fish oil, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), for patients with known CV disease and for patients at increased risk for CV disease, particularly patients at increased risk for SCD. The target DHA + EPA consumption levels are about 800 to 1000 mg/d for individuals with known CHD and at least 500 mg/d for individuals without disease.Ochsner Journal 01/2008; 8(2):49-60.
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ABSTRACT: We review data regarding the importance of various conventional and evolving atherosclerosis risk factors. In addition, we discuss a multifactorial approach to the primary and secondary prevention of major vascular events, including stroke.Ochsner Journal 01/2003; 5(1):12-7.
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ABSTRACT: Familial hypercholesterolema (FH) is an inherited autosomal dominant disorder of lipid metabolism. We report a 3 years old female child who presented with multiple eruptive xanthomatosis of skin since 6 months of age and had deranged lipid profile consistent with FH.Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism. 07/2012; 16(4):643-5.