Cohen S. Psychosocial models of the role of social support in the etiology of physical disease. Health Psychol. 7( 3): 269-297

Department of Psychology, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213.
Health Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.59). 02/1988; 7(3):269-97. DOI: 10.1037/0278-6133.7.3.269
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Although there has been a substantial effort to establish the beneficial effects of social support on health and well-being, relatively little work has focused on how social support influences physical health. This article outlines possible mechanisms through which support systems may influence the etiology of physical disease. I begin by reviewing research on the relations between social support and morbidity and between social support and mortality. I distinguish between various conceptualizations of social support used in the existing literature and provide alternative explanations of how each of these conceptualizations of the social environment could influence the etiology of physical disease. In each case, I address the psychological mediators (e.g., health relevant cognitions, affect, and health behaviors) as well as biologic links (e.g., neuroendocrine links to immune and cardiovascular function). I conclude by proposing conceptual and methodological guidelines for future research in this area, highlighting the unique contributions psychologists can make to this inherently interdisciplinary endeavor.

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Available from: Sheldon Cohen, Oct 09, 2015
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    • "Research on the benefits of social support has not yielded systematically positive results. However, three conditions have been shown to improve the overall effectiveness of support transactions: (a) support must be empathetic (Thoits, 1986), (b) support must be fitting to the stressor (Cohen, 1988), and (c) support must not be perceived as burdensome to the support provider (Bolger, Zuckerman, & Kessier, 2000). Social support provides a useful mechanism for understanding the ways in which increased social integration can affect both mental and physical health. "
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    ABSTRACT: Post-migration stressors represent significant obstacle to refugee adjustment, and continued exposure to post-migration stressors can negatively affect mental and physical health. Communities of support maintained over the Internet may provide a sense of constancy and reliability that may insulate against the negative effects of stress. We conducted five focus group interviews with Iraqi and Sudanese refugees to understand how refugees use the Internet to access support in their daily lives. Four trends were observed: (a) Internet use was related to culture of origin, (b) refugees were reluctant to explore online, (c) children served as brokers of online knowledge, and (d) limited Internet access is associated with increased time and financial obligations. This study aims to contribute to theory on Internet-mediated social support and to refugee health by creating smoother pathways to self-sufficiency and allowing refugees to exhibit agency in constructing and maintaining online networks of support. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Qualitative Health Research 08/2015; 25(10). DOI:10.1177/1049732315601089 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    • ".37; Cohen, 1988) with targeted variables were entered as control variables, including age, sex, BP medication status, and BMI. Given the nested design of the study within three communities, community was also entered as a control variable; statistical approaches which rely on multi-level modeling or the estimation of cluster-robust standard errors to handle nested data are reliable only with cluster-level samples of N ! "
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    • "Evidence suggests a positive impact of social ties and social support on health and well-being [16] [17]. In particular, perceived social support has been found to positively relate to physical and psychological wellbeing [16]. The transition from childhood to adulthood involves many challenges, and while parent–child relationships change during adolescence, parental emotional support remains of vital importance [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to explore the psychological well-being of Polish and Asian immigrant youth in Iceland in comparison with their native peers, and the role of sociodemographic background and social support in explaining ethnic differences. The study is based on a dataset from the research network Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC), collected in the school year 2009-2010. A total of 11,561 students aged 11, 13, and 15 years participated in the study. Immigrant status was determined by parents' birthplace dividing the two non-native groups into four: non-mixed Polish, mixed-Polish (one parent born in Poland), non-mixed Asian, and mixed-Asian (one parent born in Asia). Data were analyzed by means of hierarchical multiple regression. Less life-satisfaction and more distress was reported in all non-native groups compared with natives. The outcomes were more negative for youth of mixed ethnic origin. Initial ethnic differences in life-satisfaction and distress disappeared or were substantially reduced when sociodemographic background and social support were controlled. A key finding is that non-native youth more often live in challenging socioeconomic circumstances and experience less access to social support than their native peers. Emphasis should be placed on actions that aim to create better sociodemographic conditions and supportive environments for immigrant families. In particular, special effort to foster a supportive school environment for immigrant youth is suggested. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
    Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 06/2015; 43(6). DOI:10.1177/1403494815588644 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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