Although there has been a substantial effort to establish the beneficial effects of social support on health and well-being, relatively little work has focused on how social support influences physical health. This article outlines possible mechanisms through which support systems may influence the etiology of physical disease. I begin by reviewing research on the relations between social support and morbidity and between social support and mortality. I distinguish between various conceptualizations of social support used in the existing literature and provide alternative explanations of how each of these conceptualizations of the social environment could influence the etiology of physical disease. In each case, I address the psychological mediators (e.g., health relevant cognitions, affect, and health behaviors) as well as biologic links (e.g., neuroendocrine links to immune and cardiovascular function). I conclude by proposing conceptual and methodological guidelines for future research in this area, highlighting the unique contributions psychologists can make to this inherently interdisciplinary endeavor.
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"Research on the benefits of social support has not yielded systematically positive results. However, three conditions have been shown to improve the overall effectiveness of support transactions: (a) support must be empathetic (Thoits, 1986), (b) support must be fitting to the stressor (Cohen, 1988), and (c) support must not be perceived as burdensome to the support provider (Bolger, Zuckerman, & Kessier, 2000). Social support provides a useful mechanism for understanding the ways in which increased social integration can affect both mental and physical health. "
".37; Cohen, 1988) with targeted variables were entered as control variables, including age, sex, BP medication status, and BMI. Given the nested design of the study within three communities, community was also entered as a control variable; statistical approaches which rely on multi-level modeling or the estimation of cluster-robust standard errors to handle nested data are reliable only with cluster-level samples of N ! "
"Evidence suggests a positive impact of social ties and social support on health and well-being  . In particular, perceived social support has been found to positively relate to physical and psychological wellbeing . The transition from childhood to adulthood involves many challenges, and while parent–child relationships change during adolescence, parental emotional support remains of vital importance . "