New insights on Vitamin K
Vitamin K catalyzes the post-translational carboxylation of coagulation proteins C, S, and factors II, VII, XI, and X. Detection of the noncarboxylated forms allows an indirect and specific measure of the vitamin K deficiency found in early, classic, and late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN), malabsorption syndromes, and drug related (warfarin, anticonvulsants, and antibiotics) states. Idiopathic late HDN (CNS bleeding) occurs in exclusively breast-fed infants and is prevented by appropriate parenteral and oral vitamin K prophylaxis given at birth. All newborn infants and older infants with malabsorption syndromes should receive prophylactic vitamin K.
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- "Clinical features are mostly represented by dark melaena stools, bloody vomit, nose bleed, blood-stained urine, petecchiae, cephaloematoma or bleeding from the umbilical stump, and circumcision bleeding; catastrophic central nervous system bleeding is infrequent. This kind of disease (especially in the first 2–3 d of life) can occur even in babies of mothers on certain anticonvulsants (phenobarbitale, carbemazepina), antibiotics (rifampicyne ) or anticoagulant treatment (warfarin) . "
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ABSTRACT: Oral or parenteral administration of vitamin K is the accepted practice for prevention of early vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in the newborn. However, vitamin K prophylaxis in the newborn continues to be a worldwide health concern, particularly in breastfed infants. This paper reviews the current status of the use of vitamin K for the prevention of early and late VKDB.
Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway: 1992). Supplement 11/2005; 94(449):125-8. DOI:10.1080/08035320510043682
European Journal of Pediatrics 12/1988; 148(2):177-8. DOI:10.1007/BF00445942 · 1.89 Impact Factor
Available from: nih.gov
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