Biochemical mechanism of aminoglycoside-induced inhibition of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by lysosomal phospholipases.
ABSTRACT Aminoglycosides such as gentamicin are hydrophilic, polycationic drugs which bind to negatively-charged phospholipid bilayers, inhibit the activities of the lysosomal enzymes involved in the degradation of the major phospholipids and cause, in kidney in vivo or in cultured cells, a lysosomal phospholipidosis. In the present study, we show that the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine induced in liposomes by lysosomal extracts at pH 5.4 in vitro is critically dependent on the negative charges carried by the bilayer. This hydrolysis, which is predominantly carried on by phospholipases A1 and A2, markedly increases when the phosphatidylinositol content is raised from 10 to 30% of the total phospholipids, i.e. in a range found in natural membranes. Addition of gentamicin decreases the activity of these enzymes in a non-competitive fashion, but the effect is inversely proportional to the amount of phosphatidylinositol present in the bilayer. Gentamicin and bis(beta-diethylaminoethylether)hexestrol (DEH), a cationic amphiphile which also binds to phospholipid bilayers, are equipotent inhibitors when added to negatively-charged liposomes at equinormal concentrations. Although direct aminoglycoside-enzyme interactions cannot be excluded, these results strongly suggest that gentamicin impairs the activities of the lysosomal phospholipases towards phosphatidylcholine by decreasing the available negative charges required for optimal activity.
Article: Aminoglycosides: nephrotoxicity.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 06/1999; 43(5):1003-12. · 4.84 Impact Factor
Article: Exogenous pulmonary surfactant as a drug delivering agent: influence of antibiotics on surfactant activity.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: 1. It has been proposed to use exogenous pulmonary surfactant as a drug delivery system for antibiotics to the alveolar compartment of the lung. Little, however, is known about interactions between pulmonary surfactant and antimicrobial agents. This study investigated the activity of a bovine pulmonary surfactant after mixture with amphotericin B, amoxicillin, ceftazidime, pentamidine or tobramycin. 2. Surfactant (1 mg ml-1 in vitro and 40 mg ml-1 in vivo) was mixed with 0.375 mg ml-1 amphotericin B, 50 mg ml-1 amoxicillin, 37.5 mg ml-1 ceftazidime, 1 mg ml-1 pentamidine and 2.5 mg ml-1 tobramycin. Minimal surface tension of 50 microliters of the mixtures was measured in vitro by use of the Wilhelmy balance. In vivo surfactant activity was evaluated by its capacity to restore gas exchange in an established rat model for surfactant deficiency. 3. Surfactant deficiency was induced in ventilated rats by repeated lavage of the lung with warm saline until PaO2 dropped below 80 cmH2O with 100% inspired oxygen at standard ventilation settings. Subsequently an antibiotic-surfactant mixture, saline, air, or surfactant alone was instilled intratracheally (4 ml kg-1 volume, n = 6 per treatment) and blood gas values were measured 5, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after instillation. 4. The results showed that minimal surface tensions of the mixtures were comparable to that of surfactant alone. In vivo PaO2 levels in the animals receiving ceftazidime-surfactant or pentamidine-surfactant were unchanged when compared to the surfactant group. PaO2 levels in animals receiving amphotericin B-surfactant, amoxicillin-surfactant or tobramycin-surfactant were significantly decreased compared to the surfactant group. For tobramycin it was further found that PaO2 levels were not affected when 0.2 M NaHCO3 (pH = 8.3) buffer was used for suspending surfactant instead of saline. 5. It is concluded that some antibiotics affect the in vivo activity of a bovine pulmonary surfactant. Therefore, before using surfactant-antibiotic mixtures in clinical trials, interactions between the two agents should be carefully evaluated.British Journal of Pharmacology 07/1996; 118(3):593-8. · 4.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2) is characterized by increased activity toward zwitterionic phospholipid liposomes containing negatively charged lipids under acidic conditions. The effect of anionic lipids on LPLA2 activity was investigated. Mouse LPLA2 activity was assayed as C2-ceramide transacylation. Sulfatide incorporated into liposomes enhanced LPLA2 activity under acidic conditions and was weakened by NaCl or increased pH. Amiodarone, a cationic amphiphilic drug, reduced LPLA2 activity. LPLA2 exhibited esterase activity when p-nitro-phenylbutyrate (pNPB) was used as a substrate. Unlike the phospholipase A2 activity, the esterase activity was detected over wide pH range and not inhibited by NaCl or amiodarone. Presteady-state kinetics using pNPB were consistent with the formation of an acyl-enzyme intermediate. C2-ceramide was an acceptor for the acyl group of the acyl-enzyme but was not available as the acyl group acceptor when dispersed in liposomes containing amiodarone. Cosedimentation of LPLA2 with liposomes was enhanced in the presence of sulfatide and was reduced by raising NaCl, amiodarone, or pH in the reaction mixture. LPLA2 adsorption to negatively charged lipid membrane surfaces through an electrostatic attraction, therefore, enhances LPLA2 enzyme activity toward insoluble substrates. Thus, anionic lipids present within lipid membranes enhance the rate of phospholipid hydrolysis by LPLA2 at lipid-water interfaces.The Journal of Lipid Research 04/2009; 50(10):2027-35. · 5.56 Impact Factor