A scale for the estimation of sleep problems in clinical research.
ABSTRACT Problems in sleeping are widely prevalent in modern society and are often one of the presenting complaints of patients consulting physicians. In addition, there is scattered epidemiologic evidence and considerable clinical support that disturbed or inadequate sleep may be a risk factor for clinical emergence of cardiovascular disease and for total mortality. The role of sleep problems both as a precursor and as a sequela of disease states could be better delineated in large groups by the availability of a brief, reliable and standardized scale for sleep disturbance. Such a scale could also be used to evaluate the impact of different therapies upon sleep problems. This paper presents data from two study populations responding to three and four item self-report scales. From 9 to 12% of air traffic controllers reported various sleep problems to have occurred on half or more of the days during the prior month, whereas 12-22% of patients 6 months after cardiac surgery reported such frequent sleep problems. Utilizing data from the 6 and 12 month follow-ups, test-retest reliability of the three-item scale in cardiac surgery patients was found to be 0.59. Internal consistency coefficients for the three and four-item scales were 0.63 and 0.79 respectively.
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ABSTRACT: This study examined whether sleep problems predicted academic performance, classroom disruptive behavior, and substance use among 171 adolescents (58% female; age: M =14.05, SD =1.46). We also tested whether poor self-regulation mediated such relationships. Students reported their sleep problems (i.e., insomnia), reasons for doing schoolwork, ability to control their attention and behavior, school grade, classroom disruptive behavior, and substance use. Teacher ratings of academic performance were also gathered. The results showed that self-regulation significantly mediated the effects of sleep problems on academic performance, classroom disruptive behavior, and substance use. The developmental implications of the findings were discussed. Sleep problems are a major public health issue in the U.S. An estimated 70 million Americans suffer from sleep problems and about 30 million Americans have frequent or chronic insomnia (National Institute of Health, 2006). According to a national study, more than one half (56%) of 6 th -12 th graders got less sleep than they thought they needed to feel their best; 51% felt tired or sleepy during the day and 51% had difficulty falling asleep at least once in the last two weeks (National Sleep Foundation, 2006). This study examined the relationship among sleep problems, academic performance, and substance use among a group of adolescents. The study also tested whether self-regulation mediated the effect of sleep problems on academic performance and substance use.North American Journal of Psychology 12/2014; 16(3):629-648.
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ABSTRACT: Onderzoek laat zien dat het bereik van depressiepreventie aanzienlijk achterblijft bij bevolkingsgroepen met een lagere sociaal-economische status (SES). Dit heeft geleid tot de ontwikkeling van een alternatief concept: klachtgerichte miniinterventies (KMIs). In dit artikel beschrijven we de uitkomsten van drie KMIs gericht op achtereenvolgens slapen, stress en piekeren. Verder identificeren we subgroepen van de Nederlandse bevolking die potentieel baat hebben bij deze interventies met speciale aandacht voor groepen met een lagere SES. In een totale onderzoekspopulatie van 135 volwassenen die hebben deelgenomen aan één van de drie KMIs, is tweemaal een vragenlijst afgenomen om niveaus van welbevinden, depressie, angst, slaapklachten, stress en piekeren te meten, één voor aanvang en één drie maanden na de start van de cursus. Alle interventies laten verbeteringen zien op de specifieke klachten waarop zij gericht zijn (slaap-, stress- of piekerklachten). Een afname van depressieve klachten en stress werd geobserveerd bij alle cursussen. De data tonen verder demografische verschillen in de impact van de interventies gebaseerd op geslacht, opleiding, leeftijd en het hebben van een betaalde baan. Voorzichtig concluderen we dat KMIs kunnen bijdragen aan het verminderen en voorkomen van depressie, ook onder lage SES groepen. Op basis van de resultaten van deze pilot verdient het aanbeveling om een gerandomiseerde gecontroleerde trial uit te voeren om te testen in hoeverre de gemeten effecten daadwerkelijk toegeschreven kunnen worden aan de interventies. Abstract Are complaint-directed mini-interventions for sleeping, stress and worrying an enrichment for depression prevention? Results of a one-group pretest-posttest study Research indicates that depression prevention reaches fewer people in lower socio-economic groups as compared to higher socio-economic groups. This gave rise to the development of an alternative concept: complaint-directed miniinterventions. In a pilot with a one-group pretest-posttest design, we examined the outcomes of three complaint-directed mini-interventions aimed at sleeping, stress and worrying. Furthermore, we identified subgroups who potentially benefit from these interventions with a special interest in groups with a low socio-economic status (SES). In a total sample of 135 Dutch adults who participated in one of the three interventions, levels of well-being, depression, anxiety, sleeping problems, stress and worrying were measured at baseline and at three-month follow-up. All three interventions yielded significant improvements on the specific complaints they aimed at (sleeping, stress or worrying). A reduction of levels of depression and stress was observed in all interventions. Moreover, the data indicate demographic variations in the impact of the interventions based on sex, education, age and having paid employment. Carefully, we conclude that complaint-directed mini-interventions have the potential to contribute to depression prevention, also among low SES populations. It is recommended to conduct a randomised controlled trial to examine to what extent these effects can be attributed to the interventions.Tijdschrift voor gezondheidswetenschappen. 03/2014; 92(3):111-118.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: The MUSICIAN study has previously shown short term benefit but only marginal cost-effectiveness for two non-pharmacological interventions for chronic widespread pain (CWP). We wished to determine their long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Methods: A 2x2 factorial randomised controlled trial based in primary care in the UK. People were eligible if they were aged ≥25 years with CWP for which they had consulted their GP. The interventions were a 6-month telephone cognitive behaviour therapy (tCBT) and/or a tailored exercise programme, in comparison to usual care. The primary outcome was patient-reported change in health. Results: 884 persons were eligible, 442 were randomised and 81.7% were followed up 24 months post-treatment. In comparison to usual care (positive outcome 12.8%), tCBT (35.4%; OR 3.7 95% CI 1.8, 8.0), exercise (29.3%; OR 2.8 95% CI (1.3, 6.0) and both interventions (31.2%; OR 3.1 95% CI (1.3, 6.0)) were significantly more effective. There was no significant decrease in effectiveness over time for either individual treatment. Those with more intense/disabling pain, higher distress and who exhibited passive coping at baseline were more likely to have a positive outcome with tCBT than persons without these characteristics. tCBT was associated with the greatest increase in quality of life and lowest costs. Cost per Quality Adjusted Life Year was £3957-£5917 depending on method of analysis. Conclusions: A short course of tCBT for people with CWP was effective long-term and was highly cost-effective. Exercise was also effective but delivered positive outcome for fewer patients at greater cost, and there was no advantage of patients receiving both interventions.RMD Open. 02/2015; 1(1):e000026.