Migration from plasticized films into foods. 3. Migration of phthalate, sebacate, citrate and phosphate esters from films used for retail food packaging.
ABSTRACT A UK survey of plasticizer levels in retail foods (73 samples) wrapped in plasticized films or materials with plasticized coatings has been carried out. A wide range of different food-types packaged in vinylidene chloride copolymers (PVDC), nitrocellulose-coated regenerated cellulose film (RCF) and cellulose acetate were purchased from retail and 'take-away' outlets. Plasticizers found in these films were dibutyl sebacate (DBS) and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) in PVDC, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), and diphenyl 2-ethylhexyl phosphate (DPOP) in RCF coatings, and diethyl phthlate (DEP) in cellulose acetate. Foodstuffs analysed included cheese, pate, chocolate and confectionery products, meat pies, cake, quiches and sandwiches. Analysis was by stable isotope dilution GC/MS for DBP, DCHP and DEP, GC/MS (selected ion monitoring) for BBP and DPOP, and GC with flame ionization detection for DBS and ATBC, but with mass spectrometric confirmation. Levels of plasticizers found in foods were in the following ranges: ATBC in cheese, 2-8 mg/kg; DBS in processed cheese and cooked meats, 76-137 mg/kg; 76-137 mg/kg; DBP, DCHP, BBP, and DPOP found individually or in combination in confectionery, meat pies, cake and sandwiches, total levels from 0.5 to 53 mg/kg; and DEP in quiches, 2-4 mg/kg.
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ABSTRACT: The migration of plastic components or additives from packaging to food can produce a risk for human health, in fact many of these plasticizers and additives are “Endocrine Distruptors”, such as phthalates (PAEs), alkylphenols (APs), 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (bisphenol A or BPA) and di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA). The evaluation of some PAEs, some APs, BPA and DEHA levels in common food packaging (oil and natural tuna cans, marmalade cap, yogurt packaging, polystyrene dish, teat, bread bag, film, baby's bottle, aseptic plastic laminate paperboard carton and plastic wine top) was carried out by migration tests. Furthermore to evaluate the potential migration of plasticizers and additives from plastic wine tops, two extraction methods were used, one through incubation at 40 °C for 10 days and one by ultrasounds extraction. The simulants employed were distilled water, acetic acid at 3%, ethanol at 15% for wine top. The food simulant was extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by GC–MS. Comparing these results with EU restrictions all samples showed contaminant migration lower than SML and OML established. Finally, about the comparison of two extraction methods, the extraction carried out for 10 days at 40 °C may be better than the other one in order to detect all compounds.Highlights► PAEs, APs, BPA and DEHA levels were investigated in common packaging. ► These levels were considered in synthetic wine tops by two extraction methods. ► Migration tests were carried out as suggested by the Directive 85/572/CEE and 82/711/EC. ► All samples contained at least one contaminant but at levels lower than EU restriction. ► The extraction by extreme condition was better than other.Food Control. 09/2012; 27(1):132-138.
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ABSTRACT: Agglomerated stoppers are manufactured from natural cork granules and adhesives. Esters, such as phthalates and adipates, are commonly used in adhesives at concentrations of typically 2-5%. Because of this, and regarding consumer safety, it is necessary to ensure that these compounds do not migrate into the beverage where the cork stopper is used. A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method with tandem mass spectrometry detection is developed for the separation of nine phthalates into 12% ethanol, used as simulant of alcoholic beverages. The chromatographic separation was carried out with a Luna C18 (2) HSTcolumn (50 × 3.0 mm, 2.5 μm) with a gradient elution of water/methanol with 0.1% acetic acid at 300 μL min(-1). The method was validated for four selected phthalates: di-butylphthalate, di-isononylphthalate, di-isodecylphthalate, and butyl-benzyl phthalate, with recoveries ranging between 95% and 112% and intralaboratory precision (RSD) between 5 and 14%, depending on the phthalate. The lowest quantification limit, 0.15 mg kg(-1), was achieved for di-butylphthalate. Nevertheless, in all cases, the limits obtained guarantee the method utility if restriction limits set in Commission Regulation No 10/2011 for plastic materials are taken into account.Journal of Separation Science 06/2012; 35(10-11):1319-26. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present research was to explore whether food emulsifier polysorbate 80 can enhance the absorption of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its possible mechanism. We established the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for detecting DEHP and its major metabolite, mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) in rat plasma, and then examined the toxicokinetic and bioavailability of DEHP with or without polysorbate 80 in rats. The study of its mechanism to increase the absorption of phthalates demonstrated that polysorbate 80 can induce mitochondrial dysfunction in time- and concentration-dependence manners in Caco-2 cells by reducing mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), diminishing the production of the ATP, and decreasing the activity of electron transport chain. Our results indicated that food emulsifier applied in relatively high concentrations in even the most frequently consumed foods can increase the absorption of DEHP, and the its role may be related to the structure and function damages of mitochondria in enterocytes.Toxicological Sciences 03/2014; · 4.33 Impact Factor