Migration from plasticized films into foods. 3. Migration of phthalate, sebacate, citrate and phosphate esters from films used for retail food packaging

Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Food Science Laboratory, Norwich.
Food Additives and Contaminants (Impact Factor: 2.13). 01/1988; 5(1):9-20. DOI: 10.1080/02652038809373657
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A UK survey of plasticizer levels in retail foods (73 samples) wrapped in plasticized films or materials with plasticized coatings has been carried out. A wide range of different food-types packaged in vinylidene chloride copolymers (PVDC), nitrocellulose-coated regenerated cellulose film (RCF) and cellulose acetate were purchased from retail and 'take-away' outlets. Plasticizers found in these films were dibutyl sebacate (DBS) and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) in PVDC, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), and diphenyl 2-ethylhexyl phosphate (DPOP) in RCF coatings, and diethyl phthlate (DEP) in cellulose acetate. Foodstuffs analysed included cheese, pate, chocolate and confectionery products, meat pies, cake, quiches and sandwiches. Analysis was by stable isotope dilution GC/MS for DBP, DCHP and DEP, GC/MS (selected ion monitoring) for BBP and DPOP, and GC with flame ionization detection for DBS and ATBC, but with mass spectrometric confirmation. Levels of plasticizers found in foods were in the following ranges: ATBC in cheese, 2-8 mg/kg; DBS in processed cheese and cooked meats, 76-137 mg/kg; 76-137 mg/kg; DBP, DCHP, BBP, and DPOP found individually or in combination in confectionery, meat pies, cake and sandwiches, total levels from 0.5 to 53 mg/kg; and DEP in quiches, 2-4 mg/kg.

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    • "Plasticizers are embedded between the chains of the polymers, spacing them apart and, thus, significantly lowering the glass transition temperature for the plastic, making it softer and more maleable. Plasticizers used in food contact materials include phthalates (although less often nowadays) (Castle et al. 1988a; Biedermann- Brem et al. 2005), epoxidised soybean oil (Suman et al. 2005; Fankhauser et al. 2006) and (increasingly) polyadipates (Castle et al. 1988b; Biedermann and Grob 2006; Ezerskis et al. 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Polyadipate plasticizers can be present in the polyvinylchloride (PVC) gaskets used to seal the lids of glass jars. As the gaskets can come into direct contact with the foodstuffs inside the jar, the potential exists for polyadipate migration into the food. The procedure and performance characteristics of a test method for the analysis of polyadipates in food simulants (3% aqueous acetic acid and 10% aqueous ethanol) and the volatile test media used in substitute fat tests (isooctane and 95% aqueous ethanol) are described. The PVC gaskets were exposed to the food simulants or their substitutes under standard test conditions. Studies were initially carried out using direct measurement of the polyadipate oligomers by liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection (LC-TOF-MS) but this was not practical due to the number of peaks detected. Instead, the migrating polyadipates were hydrolysed to adipic acid and measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS). The amount of polyadipate that this measurement of adipic acid represents was then calculated. Method performance was assessed by analysis of gaskets from two types of jar lids by single-laboratory validation. Linearity, sensitivity, repeatability, intermediate reproducibility and recovery were determined to be suitable for checking compliance with the 30 mg/kg specific migration limits for polyesters of 1,2-propane diol and/or 1,3- and/or 1,4-butanediol and/or polypropylene-glycol with adipic acid, which may be end-capped with acetic acid or fatty acids C(12)-C(18) or n-octanol and/or n-decanol. The method was found to be much quicker than previous methods involving extraction, clean-up, hydrolysis, esterification, derivatisation and GC measurement, consequently saving time and money.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 10/2010; 27(10):1487-95. DOI:10.1080/19440049.2010.506202 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    • "Food is thought to be an important source of phthalate exposure in the general population due to unintentional contamination from processing and packaging (Castle et al., 1988; Chou Karen, 2006). Potential home phthalate exposures include household dust and indoor air environments (Afshari A, 2004; Bornehag et al., 2005; Fromme et al., 2004; Uhde et al., 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Phthalates are synthetic chemicals that are ubiquitous in our society and may have adverse health effects in humans. Detectable concentrations of phthalate metabolites have been found in adults and children, but no studies have examined the relationship between maternal and infant phthalate metabolite concentrations. We investigated the relationship between maternal and infant urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations. We measured nine phthalate metabolites in urine samples from 210 mother/infant pairs collected on the same study visit day (1999-2005) and obtained demographic history from questionnaires. Using multivariate linear regression analyses, we examined the degree to which maternal urine phthalate metabolite concentration predicted infant phthalate metabolite concentration. All analyses were adjusted for infant age, creatinine concentration, and race. Correlation coefficients between phthalate metabolite concentrations in the urine of mothers and their infants were generally low but increased with decreasing age of infant. In multivariate analyses, mother's phthalate metabolite concentrations were significantly associated with infants' concentrations for six phthalate metabolites: monobenzyl phthalate, monoethyl phthalate, monoisobutyl phthalate, and three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate: mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxy-hexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxo-hexyl) phthalate (p-values for all coefficients <0.05). Mother's urine phthalate metabolite concentration is significantly associated with infant urine phthalate metabolite concentration for six phthalate metabolites. It is plausible that shared exposures to phthalates in the immediate surrounding environment accounted for these relationships, but other unidentified sources may also contribute to infants' phthalate exposures. This study indicates the importance of further identifying infant phthalate exposures that may be distinct from maternal exposures in order to decrease overall infant phthalate exposures.
    Environmental Research 09/2008; 108(3):413-8. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2008.07.002 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    • "As the plasticizers are not held onto the base polymer by covalent linkages, they tend to migrate into surrounding medium. The toxicity of phthalate esters migrating into physiological media such as blood, serum, plasma, saliva and intravenous infusion fluids etc., from PVCbased medical devices, into foods from PVC-based films and wrappings and direct ingestion into children from PVC-based toys and tethers has been of great concern over many years [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13]. Babies may ingest up to 6 mg of DEHP/day, sucking on plastic toys; but it is likely that a similar or higher consumption of this substance could be reached sucking on pacifiers, tethers or plastic bottles or by skin contact with clothing or playpens [12] [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was surface modified by nucleophilic substitution of the chlorine atoms of PVC by thiosulphate in aqueous media in the presence of a phase-transfer catalyst. The properties of the modified surface were evaluated by contact angle measurements, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Migration of the plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate from control as well as modified PVC was examined in hexane, in cottonseed oil and in poly(ethylene glycol)-400 (PEG-400). While the modified PVC was found to be highly migration resistant in hexane, cottonseed oil and PEG-400 extracted the plasticizer. The modified PVC was found to cause haemolysis and was cytotoxic. A possible explanation for the difference in performance of the modified material in different extraction media and its toxicity is presented from a mechanistic view of the substitution process.
    Biomaterials 01/2003; 23(24):4855-62. DOI:10.1016/S0142-9612(02)00243-0 · 8.31 Impact Factor
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