Migration from plasticized films into foods. 3. Migration of phthalate, sebacate, citrate and phosphate esters from films used for retail food packaging.
ABSTRACT A UK survey of plasticizer levels in retail foods (73 samples) wrapped in plasticized films or materials with plasticized coatings has been carried out. A wide range of different food-types packaged in vinylidene chloride copolymers (PVDC), nitrocellulose-coated regenerated cellulose film (RCF) and cellulose acetate were purchased from retail and 'take-away' outlets. Plasticizers found in these films were dibutyl sebacate (DBS) and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) in PVDC, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), and diphenyl 2-ethylhexyl phosphate (DPOP) in RCF coatings, and diethyl phthlate (DEP) in cellulose acetate. Foodstuffs analysed included cheese, pate, chocolate and confectionery products, meat pies, cake, quiches and sandwiches. Analysis was by stable isotope dilution GC/MS for DBP, DCHP and DEP, GC/MS (selected ion monitoring) for BBP and DPOP, and GC with flame ionization detection for DBS and ATBC, but with mass spectrometric confirmation. Levels of plasticizers found in foods were in the following ranges: ATBC in cheese, 2-8 mg/kg; DBS in processed cheese and cooked meats, 76-137 mg/kg; 76-137 mg/kg; DBP, DCHP, BBP, and DPOP found individually or in combination in confectionery, meat pies, cake and sandwiches, total levels from 0.5 to 53 mg/kg; and DEP in quiches, 2-4 mg/kg.
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ABSTRACT: A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed for extraction and analysis of six phthalate esters in wine samples using Carbograph 1 sorbent. The SPE procedure allowed efficient recovery of the investigated phthalates ranging between 78% and 105% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤6.5 for an ethanolic phthalic acid ester (PAE) standard solution and between 73-71% and 96-99% with a RSD ≤8.4 for red wine samples spiked with 20 and 50 ng mL(-1) of PAE, respectively. The adsorption isotherms and breakthrough curves for Carbograph 1/water solution were reported. Gas chromatography coupled with an ion-trap mass spectrometer detector (GC/IT-MS) was used for analysis. The instrumental analytical protocol was found to yield a linear calibration in the range 0.01-10.0 μg mL(-1) with R(2) values ≥0.9992. The limits of detection in GC/IT-MS (SIM mode) vary between 0.2 and 14 ng mL(-1) (RSD ≤5.6) whereas the limits of quantification range between 0.5 and 25 ng mL(-1) (RSD ≤5.9); the intra- and inter-day repeatabilities calculated as RSD for wine samples, were between 0.9-7.8 and 1.0-10.5, respectively. The analytical method developed was applied to several commercial wine samples. Furthermore, the investigated methods are simple, reliable, reproducible, and not expensive.Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 12/2011; 402(3):1373-81. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The accumulation of plastic in the oceans is an ever-growing environmental concern. Plastic debris is a choking and entanglement hazard for wildlife; plastics also leach toxic compounds into organisms and ecosystems. Educating students about the marine debris problem introduces fundamental concepts in toxicology, ecology, and oceanography. Students will learn about the toxicity of plastics, collect and analyze data on plastic debris, and put their new knowledge to work by writing a congressional bill that addresses the problem of marine debris.The American Biology Teacher 09/2011; · 0.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Agglomerated stoppers are manufactured from natural cork granules and adhesives. Esters, such as phthalates and adipates, are commonly used in adhesives at concentrations of typically 2-5%. Because of this, and regarding consumer safety, it is necessary to ensure that these compounds do not migrate into the beverage where the cork stopper is used. A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method with tandem mass spectrometry detection is developed for the separation of nine phthalates into 12% ethanol, used as simulant of alcoholic beverages. The chromatographic separation was carried out with a Luna C18 (2) HSTcolumn (50 × 3.0 mm, 2.5 μm) with a gradient elution of water/methanol with 0.1% acetic acid at 300 μL min(-1). The method was validated for four selected phthalates: di-butylphthalate, di-isononylphthalate, di-isodecylphthalate, and butyl-benzyl phthalate, with recoveries ranging between 95% and 112% and intralaboratory precision (RSD) between 5 and 14%, depending on the phthalate. The lowest quantification limit, 0.15 mg kg(-1), was achieved for di-butylphthalate. Nevertheless, in all cases, the limits obtained guarantee the method utility if restriction limits set in Commission Regulation No 10/2011 for plastic materials are taken into account.Journal of Separation Science 06/2012; 35(10-11):1319-26. · 2.59 Impact Factor