The decline in ischemic heart disease mortality: prospective evidence from the Alameda County Study.
ABSTRACT The contribution of secular changes in the distribution of ischemic heart disease risk factors and medical care utilization to the decline in ischemic heart disease mortality was investigated using data collected on the nine-year ischemic heart disease mortality experience of two cohorts selected to be representative of Alameda County, California, in 1965 and 1974. With adjustment for age, sex, race, and baseline ischemic heart disease conditions and symptoms, there was a 45% decline in the nine-year odds of ischemic heart disease mortality between the two cohorts (1965/1974, odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, p = 0.0001). Further adjustment for cohort differences in the following ischemic heart disease risk factors did not explain the decline: smoking status, leisure-time physical activity, self-assessed physical activity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, or social network participation; neither did adjustment for measures of education, utilization of preventive medical care, availability of a regular physician or clinic, health insurance coverage, number of physician visits during the last 12 months, or occupation. There was no change in the estimated ischemic heart disease decline when all adjustment variables were included in a logistic model (1965/1974, OR = 1.81, p = 0.0002). These variables do not appear to explain the large decline in nine-year ischemic heart disease mortality between these two cohorts.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: George A Kaplan, Jul 03, 2015
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the risk for various causes of posttrial death associated with vacation frequency during the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). Middle-aged men at high risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) were recruited for the MRFIT. As part of the questionnaires administered during the first five annual visits, men were asked whether they had had a vacation during the past year. For trial survivors (N = 12,338), the frequency of these annual vacations during the trial were used in a prospective analysis of posttrial all-cause and cause-specific mortality during the 9-year follow-up period. The relative risk (RR) associated with more annual vacations during the trial was 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-0.97) for all-cause mortality during the 9-year follow-up period. For cause of death, the RRs were 0.71 (95% CI, 0.58-0.89) and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.78-1.23) for cardiovascular and noncardiovascular causes, respectively. The RR was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.53-0.88) for CHD (including acute myocardial infarction). These associations remained when statistical adjustments were made for possible confounding variables, including baseline characteristics (eg, income), MRFIT group assignment, and occurrence of a nonfatal cardiovascular event during the trial. The frequency of annual vacations by middle-aged men at high risk for CHD is associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality and, more specifically, mortality attributed to CHD. Vacationing may be good for your health.Psychosomatic Medicine 01/2000; 62(5):608-12. DOI:10.1097/00006842-200009000-00003 · 4.09 Impact Factor
- Canadian Medical Association Journal 05/2000; 162(9 suppl). · 5.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Because it still is widely believed that one deadly disease after another is being eliminated, or diminished, largely because of medical interventions, there is little commitment to social change and even resistance to a reordering of national priorities. In this article we examine the contribution of medical measures to recent mortality changes in coronary heart disease, cancer, and stroke, which together account for two-thirds of total U.S. mortality and consume the vast majority of available resources. Morbidity changes are also examined and found to be not declining in a manner congruent with mortality and, in fact, increasing for some subgroups. Using a combined measure of mortality and morbidity (the probability of a life free of disability), it is demonstrated that although overall life expectancy has increased over several decades, most of this increase is in years of disability. Our late 20th century approach to the emerging AIDS pandemic (the frantic search for a "magic bullet"--either a treatment or a vaccine) belies any suggestion that the arguments and data presented concerning the modest contribution of medical measures are now passé.International Journal of Health Services 02/1989; 19(2):181-208. DOI:10.2190/L73V-NLDL-G7H3-63JC · 0.99 Impact Factor