Some differences between men and women who commit suicide.
ABSTRACT Men have persistently had a several-fold higher suicide rate than women. In this study of 204 consecutive suicides, the authors examined three areas in which the men differed from the women. Men used more violent, immediately lethal methods of suicide, were almost three times more likely to be substance abusers, and were more likely to have economic problems as stressors. The authors conclude that while the difference in suicide rate between men and women is complexly determined, the weight of the evidence suggests that more men than women intend to commit suicide.
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ABSTRACT: Whether sex differences exist in clinical risk factors associated with suicidal behavior is unknown. The authors postulated that among men with a major depressive episode, aggression, hostility, and history of substance misuse increase risk for future suicidal behavior, while depressive symptoms, childhood history of abuse, fewer reasons for living, and borderline personality disorder do so in depressed women. Patients with DSM-III-R major depression or bipolar disorder seeking treatment for a major depressive episode (N=314) were followed for 2 years. Putative predictors were tested with Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. During follow-up, 16.6% of the patients attempted or committed suicide. Family history of suicidal acts, past drug use, cigarette smoking, borderline personality disorder, and early parental separation each more than tripled the risk of future suicidal acts in men. For women, the risk for future suicidal acts was sixfold greater for prior suicide attempters; each past attempt increased future risk threefold. Suicidal ideation, lethality of past attempts, hostility, subjective depressive symptoms, fewer reasons for living, comorbid borderline personality disorder, and cigarette smoking also increased the risk of future suicidal acts for women. These findings suggest that the importance of risk factors for suicidal acts differs in depressed men and women. This knowledge may improve suicide risk evaluation and guide future research on suicide assessment and prevention.American Journal of Psychiatry 02/2007; 164(1):134-41. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Three quarters of UK suicides were not in contact with mental health services one year before dying. The characteristics of this group of suicides have not been adequately explored. Aim: Identify risk factors in no-contact suicides and explain non-referral to Mental Health Services (MHS). Method: Ongoing, observational, retrospective survey of all suicides in West Kent (population 988,027) over 5 years. No contact suicides are compared with MHS suicides through standard questionnaires completed by consultant psychiatrists, and general practitioners, and by examining coroners' records. Results: No contact suicides were significantly more likely to be male, employed, living with others and not diagnosed with a mental disorder. They have a significantly lesser frequency of previous self-harm. Their suicide risk is retrospectively estimated to be lower. 50.5% of all suicides were either not registered, had no general practitioner contact, or were last seen 13 weeks or more before suicide. These characteristics can explain non referral to specialist services. Conclusion: No-contact suicides take place to a considerable extent outside the current limitations of primary health and social care systems. Many have a different risk factor profile, and are similar to people who do not seek medical help in the first place. Declaration of interest: None.07/2009; 17(4):398-409.
Article: Suicidal behavior and alcohol abuse.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically-related intermediate phenotypes might influence the relationship between alcohol and suicide. Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior, but may also have reciprocal influences with alcohol drinking patterns. Increased suicide risk may be heralded by social withdrawal, breakdown of social bonds, and social marginalization, which are common outcomes of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence. People with alcohol dependence or depression should be screened for other psychiatric symptoms and for suicidality. Programs for suicide prevention must take into account drinking habits and should reinforce healthy behavioral patterns.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 04/2010; 7(4):1392-431. · 2.00 Impact Factor