Baumgartner RN, Chumlea WC, Roche AF. Bioelectric impedance phase angle and body composition

Department of Pediatrics, Wright State University School of Medicine, Dayton, OH.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 08/1988; 48(1):16-23.
Source: PubMed


The use of bioelectric impedance phase angle for predicting body composition was determined in 53 males and 69 females 9-62 y of age. The phase angle describes the amount of reactance (Xc) in a conductor relative to the amount of resistance (R). Bioelectric resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) were determined for the whole body and separately for arm, leg, and trunk. Weight, stature, and skinfold thicknesses were measured. Body composition was determined from densitometry. Phase angles for the trunk (phi t), leg (phi 1), and whole body (phi w) had significant (p less than 0.05) negative correlations with percent body fat (%BF) in each sex, and positive correlations with fat-free mass (FFM) in males. In multiple regression analyses, phi t was associated significantly with %BF after controlling for age, mean skinfold thickness, and weight/stature2 in each sex. Bioelectric phase angle for the trunk may be useful for predicting %BF in clinical and survey research.

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    • "En revanche, la réactance, X c, est modifiée par la fréquence du signal électrique, car elle est liée aux propriétés de capacitance de la membrane cellulaire. La réactance est donc sujette aux variations dues à l'intégrité, à la fonction et à la composition de cette membrane cellulaire (BAUMGARTNER et al. 1988). La loi d'Ohm en courant alternatif établit une relation entre la tension complexe du courant U (en Volts) et, I (en ampères), l'intensité complexe du courant électrique, selon la formule suivante : "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives—To develop equations for prediction of total body water (TBW) content in unsedated dogs by combining impedance and morphological variables, and to compare the results of those equations with TBW content determined by deuterium dilution (TBWd). Then to investigate whether these equations were predictive of TBW in various canine breeds.Animals—26 healthy laboratory adult Beagles and 13 healthy adult pet dogs of various breeds.Procedures—TBW content was determined directly by deuterium dilution and indirectly with equations developed from measurements obtained by use of a portable bioelectric impedance device and morphological variables.Results—Impedance and morphological data from 16 of the 26 Beagle dogs were used to determine coefficients for the following 2 equations: TBW1 = –0.019(BL2/R) + –0.199(RC + AC) + 0.996W + 0.081H + 12.31; and TBW2 = 0.048(BL2/R) + –0.144(RC +AC) + 0.777W + 0.066H + 0.031X + 7.47, where AC is abdominal circumference, H is height, BL is body length, R is resistance, RC is rib cage circumference, W is body weight; and X is reactance. Results for TBW1 (R21 = 0.843) and TBW2 (R22 = 0.816) were highly correlated with the TBWd. When the equations were validated with data from the remaining 10 dogs, the respective mean differences between TBWd and TBW1 and TBW2 were 0.17 and 0.11 L, which equated to a nonsignificant underestimation of TBW content by 2.4% and 1.6%, respectively. Applying the two equations to dogs of various breeds showed they are inaccurate to estimate TBW content.Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that impedance and morphological data can be used to accurately estimate TBW content in adult Beagles. This method of estimating TBW content is less expensive and easier to perform than is measurement of TBWd, making it appealing for daily use in veterinary practice. However, the proposed equations need to be modified including morphological parameters such as body size and shape in a first approach. As in humans, morphological-specific equations have to be developed and validated.
    • "Please cite this article in press as: Maddocks M, et al., Bioelectrical impedance phase angle relates to function, disease severity and prognosis in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Clinical Nutrition (2015), as a degree [4]. It provides information on hydration status, cellular mass and quality, and is not limited by the inherent assumptions when using BIA to estimate body compartments [4] [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) provides a simple method to assess changes in body composition. Raw BIA variables such as phase angle provide direct information on cellular mass and integrity, without the assumptions inherent in estimating body compartments, e.g. fat-free mass (FFM). Phase angle is a strong functional and prognostic marker in many disease states, but data in COPD are lacking. Our aims were to describe the measurement of phase angle in patients with stable COPD and determine the construct and discriminate validity of phase angle by assessing its relationship with established markers of function, disease severity and prognosis. 502 outpatients with stable COPD were studied. Phase angle and FFM by BIA, quadriceps strength (QMVC), 4-m gait speed (4MGS), 5 sit-to-stand time (5STS), incremental shuttle walk (ISW), and composite prognostic indices (ADO, iBODE) were measured. Patients were stratified into normal and low phase angle and FFM index. Phase angle correlated positively with FFM and functional outcomes (r = 0.35-0.66, p < 0.001) and negatively with prognostic indices (r = -0.35 to -0.48, p < 0.001). In regression models, phase angle was independently associated with ISW, ADO and iBODE whereas FFM was removed. One hundred and seventy patients (33.9% [95% CI, 29.9-38.1]) had a low phase angle. Phenotypic characteristics included lower QMVC, ISW, and 4MGS, higher 5STS, ADO and iBODE scores, and more exacerbations and hospital days in past year. The proportion of patients to have died was significantly higher in patients with low phase angle compared to those with normal phase angle (8.2% versus 3.6%, p = 0.02). Phase angle relates to markers of function, disease severity and prognosis in patients with COPD. As a directly measured variable, phase angle offers more useful information than fat-free mass indices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
    Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.clnu.2014.12.020 · 4.48 Impact Factor
    • "Please cite this article in press as: Paix~ ao EMdS, et al., A prospective study on the radiation therapy associated changes in body weight and bioelectrical standardized phase angle, Clinical Nutrition (2014), parameters derived from BIA associated with cell death or decreased cell integrity. Higher PA values represent higher amount of intact cellular membranes, that is to say, higher body cell mass [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background & aims Standardized phase angle (SPA) is a value derived from bioelectrical impedance phase angle analysis and has been recognized as marker of nutritional risk and clinical status of cancer patients. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in SPA during radiation therapy of cancer patients and identify possible nutritional and clinical determinants of these changes. Methods Nutritional assessment was performed before the initiation and at the end of the radiotherapy. It included anthropometrics and bioelectrical impedance analysis. A generalized linear mixed model was used to evaluate the effects of selected independent variables on the changes in standardized phase angle. Results A total of 104 patients entered the study and those with complete information were included in the analysis (n = 62). Most patients (61%) were at clinical stage I and II, the most prevalent irradiation site was the pelvis (39%) and 98% were well nourished or overweight. According to the regression analysis, changes in body weight and irradiation at head and neck/ upper abdomen and thorax were associated with standardized phase angle modifications during radiotherapy. Clinical stage and radiation dose were not associated with changes in standardized phase angle. Compared to baseline values, for every 1kg weight reduction during the radiation therapy, the standardized phase angle also decreased by 0.107 (p <0.0001). Conclusions In well-nourished or overweight patients, weight loss during radiation therapy is closely associated with decrease in standard phase angle.
    Clinical Nutrition 06/2014; 34(3). DOI:10.1016/j.clnu.2014.05.012 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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