Heterosexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) appears to occur readily in Africa but less commonly in North America and Europe. We conducted a case-control study among men attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Nairobi to determine the prevalence of HIV infection and the risk factors involved. HIV antibody was detected in 11.2 percent of 340 men who enrolled in the study. Reports of nonvaginal heterosexual intercourse and homosexuality were notably rare. Recent injections and blood transfusions were not associated with HIV infection. Travel and frequent contact with prostitutes were associated with HIV seropositivity. Men who were uncircumcised were more likely to have HIV infection (odds ratio, 2.7; P = 0.003), as were those who reported a history of genital ulcers (odds ratio, 7.2; P less than 0.001). A current diagnosis of genital ulcers was also associated with HIV seropositivity (odds ratio, 2.0; P = 0.028). Multivariate analysis revealed an independent association of genital ulcers with HIV infection in both circumcised and uncircumcised men. Uncircumcised men were more frequently infected with HIV, regardless of a history of genital ulcers. Our study finds that genital ulcers and an intact foreskin are associated with HIV infection in men with a sexually transmitted disease. Genital ulcers may increase men's susceptibility to HIV, or they may increase the infectivity of women infected with HIV. The intact foreskin may operate to increase the susceptibility to HIV.
"Recently, many researchers have investigated an association between circumcision and the prevention of HIV transmission in Africa. Several cohort studies have shown a lower prevalence of the virus among circumcised males (Simonsen et al, 1988; Urassa et al, 1997). However, some cross-sectional surveys from Africa have shown no association or an inverse association (Van Howe, 1999). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As one of the oldest surgical procedures, circumcision continues to attract active debate on risks and benefits when performed for ''elective'' reasons. The argument spans a wide range of ages and topics, including neonates and adults, cause and effect on sexual function, penile sensitivity, and preventive medical benefits. There exists in the literature a large body of information regarding circumcision derived from different sources, which include surgeons, family doctors, psychiatrists, lawyers, the mothers of patients, and health policy makers. However, there is relatively little research on this topic within the community of urologists. There are few published reports regarding the effects of adult circumcision on sexual function, despite the fact that approximately 75% of U.S.-born males are circumcised (Laumann et al, 1997).
Journal of Andrology 01/2007; 28(1):5-7. DOI:10.2164/jandrol.106.001818 · 2.47 Impact Factor
"In developing countries where chancroid is endemic, the usefulness of treatment-based strategies may be limited by antibiotic resistance (Ison et al., 1998). Apart from curbing the disease, a chancroid vaccine may also help limit the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic , as chancroid acts as a facilitating cofactor in its sexual transmission (Simonsen et al., 1988; Cameron et al., 1989), and they are epidemiologically tightly associated in regions endemic with chancroid (Cameron and Padian, 1990). Oral bacterial vaccines are easier to administer, safer, and have greater compliance than an injectable one (Kotton and Hohmann, 2004). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oral live Salmonella vaccine vectors expressing recombinant guest antigens help stimulate systemic, mucosal, humoral, and cell-mediated immune responses against Salmonella and recombinant antigens. It may be possible to use them effectively against Haemophilus ducreyi, the bacterium that causes chancroid, a sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease. This study aimed to test the feasibility of using oral Salmonella vaccine vectors for the evaluation of chancroid vaccine candidates in the temperature-dependent rabbit model of H. ducreyi infection, an in vivo quantitative virulence assay of inducible immunity. We identified 10(8) to 10(9) CFU to be a safe and immunogenic oral dose range of S. typhimurium SL3261, by monitoring post-administration onset and course of illness and antibody titre by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). We successfully transduced plasmid pTETnir15 into the strain to produce recombinant S. typhimurium SL3261(pTETnir15), successfully expressed tetanus toxin fragment C (TetC) in it, and elicited serum anti-TetC titres of 1:6400 by EIA, 4 weeks after inoculation. The course of experimentally induced H. ducreyi skin lesions in rabbits treated with SL3261(pTETnir15) was similar to that in saline-treated controls. We describe a framework that successfully uses Salmonella as a vector for recombinant control antigen in the rabbit model of H. ducreyi infection, and is suitable for pre-clinical evaluation of Salmonella vector-based H. ducreyi vaccine antigen candidates.
"If one considers syphilis alone, there are many conflicting studies regarding the role of the prepuce in disease risk   . Uncircumcised men may be at increased risk for infection with HIV, but several studies have shown circumcised men to be at higher risk, and others show no effect of circumcision status    . Such conflicting studies yield the conclusion that circumcision as a routine procedure cannot be justified as a means of preventing STDs. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The debate about whether to circumcise infants in the neonatal period likely will continue for some time. As the medical and ethical issues are discussed and studied, however, economic factors are beginning to limit the practice in the United States. For example, Medicaid no longer funds neonatal circumcision in 11 states . Private insurers likely will follow the lead of state health insurance, and a decline in the rate of circumcision will follow. As this shift in reimbursement occurs, parents who believe that circumcision is a medically necessary practice will need to be reassured that their child may lead a healthy life with an intact foreskin.
Urologic Clinics of North America 09/2004; 31(3):461-7, viii. DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2004.04.011 · 1.20 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.