The lysozyme enhancer: cell-specific activation of the chicken lysozyme gene by a far-upstream DNA element.

The EMBO Journal (Impact Factor: 10.75). 05/1986; 5(4):719-24.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The chicken lysozyme gene is constitutively expressed in macrophages and controlled by steroid hormones in the oviduct. We have investigated the influence of the 5' noncoding region of this gene on its cell-specific transcriptional activation. In transient transfection experiments we have identified a far-upstream cell-specific enhancer element 6.1 kb 5' to the transcriptional start site of the lysozyme gene. Transcription from the lysozyme gene promoter is induced by this element in a position- and orientation-independent manner in lysozyme-producing myeloid cells (HBCI), but not in non-producing chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF-38). The enhancer region correlates with a DNase-hypersensitive chromatin site which is only detectable in cells of tissues in which the lysozyme gene is transcribed. We suggest that this far-upstream element is involved in the tissue-specific control of lysozyme gene activity.

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    ABSTRACT: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in chicken lysozyme (LYZ) gene were investigated in this study. The identification of SNPs in both exon and intron in LYZ gene has led to understanding of evolution for the domestic chicken populations. A total of 24 samples from two Korean native commercial chicken populations (CCPs) were used for the initial identification of SNPs by mixing three DNA samples for sequencing experiments. By comparing with red jungle fowl (RJF), two commercial chicken populations have 18 common polymorphisms. Between two commercial chicken populations, 15 polymorphisms were identified. Of the 33 polymorphisms identified, two indels (21 and 4 bp) were found. Whereas, only one polymorphism in exon 2 at the bp position 1426 was a non-synonymous substitution (p.Ala49Val), indicating the amino acid changes. The identified non-synonymous substitution (p.Ala49Val) is located close to the catalytic sites of the enzyme, which might affect its activity. In our investigation, the polymorphisms in LYZ gene can provide broad ideas for the variation of Korean native chicken populations from the ancestor of chicken breeds as well as the some biological functions of the LYZ gene.
    CNU Journal of Agricultural Science. 01/2010; 37(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Theeffects ofinserting cellular regulatory sequencesfromthemurinetransthyretin (TTR)geneintothe Moloney murineleukemia virus (M-MuLV)longterminal repeat (LTR)were investigated. Transthyretin is expressed predominantly intheliver andchoroid plexus inadult mice, andTTRupstream regulatory elements were previously showntopotentiate transcription inliver-derived cells. Theeffects ofinserting theTTR distal enhancer and/or promoter-proximal sequencesinto an M-MuLVLTR lacking itsenhancers were measured in three ways.(i)Chimeric LTRswere fused tothebacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene(cat) and tested fortransient geneexpression bytransfection into liver-derived cells orNIH3T3fibroblasts. (ii) Infectious M-MuLV containing an altered LTR (AMo+TTR(PD) MuLVIwas generated, andinfectivity inculture on hepatocyte lines andNIH3T3cells was tested. (iii) Infection ofAMo+TTR(PD)MuLV invivo was tested by inoculating NFS/Nmiceandperforming insituhybridization ofwholeanimal sections. Chimeric LTR-cat constructs showedhigher levels ofcatgene expression inliver-derived cell lines thaninNIH 3T3cells, indicating increased LTRactivity inthese cells. However, invitro infection didnotshowsignificantly higher infectivity inhepatocytes forAMo+TTR(PD)M-MuLVthandidwild-type M-MuLV.Invivo, AMo+TTR(PD) MuLV showedexpression inthesame tissues as withwild-type M-MuLV-inoculated mice,i.e., lymphoid

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