Sulfate conjugation in drug metabolism: role of inorganic sulfate.
ABSTRACT Conjugation with sulfate is a major pathway for the biotransformation of phenolic drugs in humans and many animal species. It is a process of limited capacity; the extent of sulfate conjugate formation and the metabolic clearance of drugs subject to conjugation with sulfate depend therefore on the dose, the dosage form, the route of administration, and the rate and duration of administration as well as on the pharmacokinetic parameters of competing processes. The effect of these variables is exemplified by the pharmacokinetics of salicylamide and acetaminophen in humans and rats. In our experience so far, the proximate cause of the nonlinear pharmacokinetics of sulfate conjugation of phenolic drugs is the limited availability and consequent depletion of inorganic sulfate. When this is prevented by direct or indirect (via sulfate donors such as N-acetylcysteine) repletion, the saturability of phenol sulfotransferase (EC 184.108.40.206) activity can become evident. The major mechanism of inorganic sulfate homeostasis is nonlinear renal clearance, which is due largely to saturable renal tubular reabsorption. Systemic depletion of inorganic sulfate secondary to utilization of this anion for the sulfation of drugs affects the availability of sulfate in the central nervous system and may, therefore, modify the disposition of certain neurotransmitters and other endogenous substances that are subject to sulfate conjugation.
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ABSTRACT: There is no fully satisfactory method for measuring amino acid catabolism in the nonsteady state that follows normal protein consumption. Because sulfate is the major product of sulfur amino acid catabolism, we tested whether its production can be accurately depicted using simple tracer or nontracer approaches under basal conditions and after the intravenous administration of a known amount of sulfate. In the basal postabsorptive state, serum sulfate concentration and urinary sulfate excretion remained constant for many hours, but the apparent steady-state serum sulfate rate of appearance achieved with primed continuous oral administration of sodium [(34)S]sulfate was 20% higher than urinary sulfate excretion. By contrast, after magnesium sulfate infusion, the increase in sulfate production above basal accounted for 95% over 6 h and 98% over 9 h of the administered dose when measured simply as urinary inorganic sulfate excretion corrected for changes in its extracellular fluid content. Using the latter method, we measured sulfate production after oral methionine and intravenous infusion of methionine in a mixture of other essential amino acids. Sulfate production above basal accounted for 59% over 6 h and 75% over 9 h of the oral methionine dose. Similar results were obtained with the mixed amino acid infusion, but interpretation of the latter experiment was limited by the mild protein sparing (and, hence, reduced endogenous sulfate production) induced by the amino acid infusion. We conclude that a simple nontracer method can provide an accurate measure of sulfate production and, hence, sulfur amino acid catabolism over collection periods as short as 6 h after a test meal. A significant portion of the sulfur derived from methionine appears to be retained in nonprotein compounds immediately after its ingestion.AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 07/2001; 280(6):E857-66. · 4.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: N-Acetyltransferases (NATs) and sulfotransferases (SULTs) are key phase II metabolizing enzymes that can be involved both in the detoxification and in the activation of many human promutagens and procarcinogens. We investigated the expression of NATs and SULTs in human prostate and tested their role in the activation the N-hydroxy (N-OH) metabolite of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), a dietary carcinogen, to form DNA adducts. Western blotting showed detectable levels of NAT1, SULT1A1 and SULT1A3 with marked inter-individual variation. NAT2 and other SULT enzymes were not detectable. NAT1 was localized by immunohistochemistry to the cytoplasm of epithelial cells. The presence of acetyl Co-enzyme A (acetyl CoA) and 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), NAT and SULT cofactors, respectively, significantly increased the level of DNA adducts, detected by P-postlabelling analysis, in calf thymus DNA incubated with N-OH-IQ and prostate cytosolic fractions. The enhancement in the level of DNA adducts in the presence of PAPS correlated with the level of SULT1A1 protein. A single prostate cytosol with the SULT1A1*2/*2 genotype produced less DNA adducts than cytosols with the *1/*2 and *1/*1 genotypes. No significant correlation was observed between NAT1 protein level and the formation of DNA adducts, even in the presence of acetyl CoA. In conclusion, we demonstrated that NAT1, SULT1A1 and SULT1A3 are present in human prostate and that both enzyme classes significantly contribute to the activation of N-hydroxylated heterocyclic amines to DNA-damaging species in this tissue. Variation in expression levels, in combination with dietary and/or environmental exposure to carcinogens, could be influential in determining individual susceptibility to prostate cancer.Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 07/2006; 16(6):391-9. · 3.61 Impact Factor
Article: Human sulfate kinetics.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Electrospray tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine steady-state serum and urinary inorganic sulfate and sulfate ester kinetic profiles of nine normal men after intravenous injection of the stable isotope sodium [34S]sulfate. Sulfate ester appearance was traced by eliminating inorganic sulfate from samples, followed by hydrolysis of sulfate esters to inorganic sulfate for analysis. Whole body inorganic sulfate turnover in steady state was calculated using standard tracer techniques. Rate of appearance and disappearance of inorganic sulfate was 841 +/- 49 micromol/h. Average urinary inorganic sulfate excretion was 609 +/- 41 micromol/h, and the whole body sulfation rate (total rate of disappearance minus rate of urinary excretion) was 232 +/- 36 micromol/h. Tracer-labeled sulfate esters appeared in serum and urine within 1 h of tracer injection. The kinetics of inorganic sulfate and sulfate esters were linked by means of a compartmental model. The appearance and excretion of sulfate esters accounted for approximately 50% of the total sulfation rate. These results indicate that human whole body sulfation accounts for approximately 27% of inorganic sulfate turnover and that extracellular inorganic sulfate is an important pool for intracellular sulfation. A substantial fraction of newly synthesized sulfate esters promptly enters the extracellular space for excretion in the urine.AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 12/2005; 289(5):R1372-80. · 3.28 Impact Factor