MRI of joint fluid in the normal and ischemic hip.

American Journal of Roentgenology (Impact Factor: 2.74). 07/1986; 146(6):1215-8. DOI: 10.2214/ajr.146.6.1215
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT MR images in 36 hips with documented avascular necrosis and 80 hips without evidence of joint disease were studied to determine the amount and appearance of fluid in the joint. All MRI examinations were done on a 1.5-T machine and included coronal images made with relative T2 weighting (repetition times = 2000-2500 msec, echo delays = 60-100 msec). The amount of joint fluid, which had an intense signal higher than fat, was graded from 0 to 3 and analyzed with respect to the patient's age and radiographic stage of avascular necrosis. Joint fluid was seen in 84% of presumed normal hips. Only four (5%) of 80 had enough fluid to surround the femoral neck (grade 2), and none had sufficient fluid to distend the joint capsule (grade 3). In comparison, 21 (58%) of 36 hips with avascular necrosis had grade-2 or grade-3 effusions (p less than 0.005), and some fluid was seen in all. Grade-3 effusions were seen in seven (50%) of 14 hips with flattening of the femoral head, compared with only one (5%) of 20 in which the femoral contour was normal. It is concluded that small amounts of fluid are present in both normal hips and those with avascular necrosis. In avascular necrosis, increased joint fluid may be present before radiographic abnormalities occur, but it is greatest after there is flattening of the femoral head. MRI is a highly sensitive method for detecting fluid in the hip joint.

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    ABSTRACT: Aim of the WorkTo evaluate the role of MRI in diagnosing hip arthritis and correlating it with clinical and laboratory assessments in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).Patients and Methods The study included 30 patients with JIA with mean age of 13.5 ± 4.5. Disease activity was evaluated by DAS28 score, physician’s global assessment (PGA–VAS), patient’s global assessment (VASglobal) and the assessment of functional ability by (CHAQ). Hip joint evaluation was assessed by hip pain on movement and the degree of limitation of motion (score 0–3). Plain radiography and MRI of the hip joint were performed for all patients. MRI score was done.ResultsMRI of hips was abnormal in 12 (40%) of all patients: 2/8 (25%) of the oligoarticular group, 4/13 (30.8%) of the polyarticular group, 5/7 (71.4%) of the systemic onset group and 1/2(50%) of the enthesitis related group. Comparing mean values of MR scores of the four clinical subsets showed significant difference (p < 0.001). Patients with active disease showed higher MR scores (3.7 ± 1.5) than those with inactive disease (2.1 ± .9) [p < 0.002]. Presence of effusion and gadolinium enhancement were significantly higher in active hips (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001 respectively). VAS–PGA and ESR were significantly correlated with MRI score (p < 0.02 and <0.05 respectively).ConclusionMRI of the hip plays an important role in the study of patients with JIA as it reveals early joint involvement and evaluates the extent of joint disease. This permits intervention at an appropriate time with suitable treatment. Clinical and laboratory findings are inadequate diagnostic tools for the assessment of hip arthritis when comparing with MRI.
    04/2012; 34(2):75–82. DOI:10.1016/j.ejr.2012.03.001
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    ABSTRACT: Hip joint effusion is expected in rapidly destructive osteoarthritis, a diagnosis often only made retrospectively at the end stage of the disease. This study assesses whether the presence of an effusion identified during routine ultrasound-guided hip injection may suggest a more aggressive process such as rapidly destructive osteoarthritis. After the observation of 10 index cases of rapidly destructive osteoarthritis in patients who presented with a joint effusion on ultrasound, we retrospectively reviewed 94 hips from 89 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided hip injection for pain. Preinjection longitudinal ultrasound images of the anterior capsule adjacent to the femoral neck and inferior to the femoral head were reviewed to determine if a joint effusion was present and the size of the effusion if one was there. Comparison of effusion size was then made between those hips that had a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of osteoarthritis and those who had rapidly destructive osteoarthritis by comparing the severity of joint effusion, if one was present. Patients with rapidly destructive osteoarthritis were more likely to have a large joint effusion 60% (3/5) than were those with osteoarthritis 6.7% (6/89) (p = 0.013). Large joint effusions identified sonographically correlate well with radiographic findings of rapidly destructive osteoarthritis. Given rapid onset and severity of the disease, when a large joint effusion is identified on routine hip intervention, patients should be forewarned of the potential for this disease process. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2013.
    Journal of Clinical Ultrasound 05/2014; 42(4). DOI:10.1002/jcu.22112 · 0.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract: Introduction:An acutely painful hip in a child can be the presenting symptom in a number of conditions. One of the most important conditions of which is septic arthritis of the hip for which early diagnosis and treatment is essential. The focus of management in acute hip pain in a child is to rule out septic arthritis as the penalty for missing a diagnosis of septic arthritis of the hip in a child has serious consequences .The purpose of our study is to add to the available pool of data on hip pain, validate the predictive values published by preceding authors. We also hope that by presenting the breadth and scope of patients presenting with an acutely painful hip with normal radiographs, we can assist the physician in decision-making when confronted with this common diagnostic challenge. Methods: Retrospective review of all the patients who were admitted to our tertiary referral pediatric hospital with complains of hip pain and pain referable to the hip between January 1997 and December 2003. A total of 207 patients 162 patients with normal x-ray were reviewed retrospectively with evaluation of history, physical examination, laboratory studies. Patients whose diagnoses were defined as transient synovitis were made by the attending physician based on result of a combination of some or all of the Laboratory tests.( presence of fever, full blood count, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, negative blood culture, and effusion on ultrasound, and clinical picture of early resolution. Patients whose diagnoses were defined as septic arthritis or probable septic arthritis were made based on the findings of elevated ESR, CRP, positive blood culture or hip aspiration culture. Results: The 162 patients included 42 females and 120 males, with an age range from 6 months to 14 years. Of our cohort of patients admitted for hip pain, 111 patients were diagnosed as transient synovitis. 56 patients who were diagnosed as transient synovitis underwent ultrasound examination of the affected hip. 89.3% (50/56) had an effusion with a mean joint space thickness of 6.6mm. 10.7% (6/56) of the patients who underwent ultrasound examination had no demonstrable effusion. Conclusions: In patients with septic with hip pain and normal radiograph, the commonest diagnosis was transient synovitis comprising 67.9% of patients.Septic arthritis is the most important diagnosis to exclude and should be suspected if there is fever, inability weight bear and highly elevated levels of ESR and CRP needed


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