Article

Methodology for enumeration of coliphages in foods.

Applied and Environmental Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.68). 06/1986; 51(5):956-62.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The effects of eluent composition, pH, and chaotropic agents on the recovery of T2, MS2, and indigenous coliphages from various foods were investigated. Additionally, methods of sample suspension and clarification were evaluated for coliphage recovery and application to various foods. Clarified sample suspensions were assayed for coliphages with a modified agar layer technique and appropriate Escherichia coli hosts. Centrifugation and polypropylene mesh filtration were more rapid and effective than glass wool filtration for clarification of sample suspensions and subsequent recovery of coliphages. Blending, stomaching, and shaking procedures were generally comparable for sample liquefaction and release of coliphages from foods. Complex basal eluents, EC medium and 1% casein, were generally more effective than a less complex eluent, phosphate buffer, for elution of coliphages from foods. For most foods, incorporation of sodium chloride or chaotropic agents, i.e., sodium trichloroacetate, urea, Tween 80, Triton X-100, and sodium nitrate, into basal eluents did not enhance recovery of coliphages. Indigenous coliphage recovery was not affected by sample suspension pH over a range of 6.0 to 9.0. With an optimal procedure, i.e., EC medium eluent, blending, and centrifugation, the recovery of T2 and MS2 ranged from 48 to 81% and from 58 to 100%, respectively, depending on the food type.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
94 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the efficacy of phage supplementation in reducing pathogen numbers, mice were treated via oral gavage with a Listeria monocytogenes phage preparation (designated ListShield) before being orally infected with L. monocytogenes. The concentrations of L. monocytogenes in the liver, spleen, and intestines were significantly lower (P < .05) in the phage-treated than in the control mice. Phage and antibiotic treatments were similarly effective in reducing the levels of L. monocytogenes in the internal organs of the infected mice. However, the significant weight loss detected in the control and antibiotic-treated groups was not observed in the infected, ListShield-treated mice. Long-term (90 days), biweekly treatment of uninfected mice with ListShield did not elicit detectable changes in the microbiota of their large intestines or deleterious changes in their health. Our data support the potential feasibility of using bacteriophages to control proliferation of L. monocytogenes in mice without affecting commensal microbiota composition.
    International Journal of Microbiology 01/2010; 2010:624234.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Biofouling and virus penetration are two significant obstacles in water treatment membrane filtration. Biofouling reduces membrane permeability, increases energy costs, and decreases the lifetime of membranes. In order to effectively remove viruses, nanofiltration or reverse osmosis (both high energy filtration schemes) must be used. Thus, there is an urgent demand for low pressure membranes with anti-biofouling and antiviral properties. The antibacterial properties of silver are well known, and silver nanoparticles (nAg) are now incorporated into a wide variety of consumer products for microbial control. In this study, nAg incorporated into polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes (nAg-PSf) exhibited antimicrobial properties towards a variety of bacteria, including Escherichia coli K12 and Pseudomonas mendocina KR1, and the MS2 bacteriophage. Nanosilver incorporation also increased membrane hydrophilicity, reducing the potential for other types of membrane fouling. XPS analysis indicated a significant loss of silver from the membrane surface after a relatively short filtration period (0.4 L/cm2) even though ICP analysis of digested membrane material showed that 90% of the added silver remained in the membrane. This silver loss resulted in a significant loss of antibacterial and antiviral activity. Thus, successful fabrication of nAg-impregnated membranes needs to allow for the release of sufficient silver ions for microbial control while preventing a rapid depletion of silver.
    Water Research 12/2008; 43(3):715-23. · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.) is an opportunistic pathogen, which can cause rare, but life-threatening infections in neonates and infants through feeding of a contaminated milk formula. We isolated 67 phages from environmental samples and tested their lytic host range on a representative collection of 40 E. sakazakii strains. A cocktail of five phages prevented the outgrowth of 35 out of 40 test strains in artificially contaminated infant formula. Two E. sakazakii phages represented prolate head Myoviridae. Molecular tests identified them as close relatives of Escherichia coli phage T4. The remaining three phages represented isometric head Myoviridae with large genome size of 140 and 200 kb, respectively, which belonged to two different DNA hybridization groups. A high dose of 10(8) pfu ml(-1) of phage could effectively sterilize a broth contaminated with both high and low pathogen counts (10(6) and 10(2) cfu ml(-1)). In contrast, broth inoculated with 10(4) phage and 10(2) bacteria per ml first showed normal bacterial growth until reaching a cell titre of 10(5) cfu ml(-1). Only when crossing this threshold, phage replication started, but it could not reduce the contamination level below 100 cfu ml(-1). Phages could be produced with titres of 10(10) pfu ml(-1) in broth culture, but they were not stable upon freeze-drying. Addition of trehalose or milk formula stabilized the phage preparation, which then showed excellent storage stability even at elevated temperature.
    Microbial Biotechnology 11/2008; 1(6):532-43. · 3.21 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
1 Download
Available from