Article

A clinical trial of the Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Sore Risk.

Nursing Clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 0.59). 07/1987; 22(2):417-28.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this article was to describe the protocol by which predictive instruments can be tested for validity and to evaluate the usefulness of an instrument for predicting pressure sore risk in an AICU. The Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Sore Risk was described. Methods for measuring predictive validity and for calculating sensitivity, specificity, and per cent predictive value of positive and negative tests were discussed. Sixty consecutively admitted AICU patients who were pressure sore free were rated for pressure sore risk within 24 to 72 hours after admission. The skin condition of each patient was systematically assessed every 2 days. Twenty-four subjects developed pressure sores during the study period. The critical cut-off point at which the patient could be judged to be at risk for pressure sore formation was a Braden Scale score equal to or less than 16. The sensitivity and specificity of the scale at this score were 83 to 64 per cent, respectively. The per cent predictive value of a positive and negative test were 61 and 85 per cent, respectively. The Braden Scale compared favorably with the Norton Scale in respect to sensitivity. The specificity, or the tendency of a scale to overpredict, was greater for the Norton than for the Braden Scale. The Norton Scale overpredicted by 64 per cent, whereas the Braden Scale overpredicted by 36 per cent. This difference may be important clinically if all patients who were judged to be at risk received additional nursing care or protective devices. A greater number of patients may receive unnecessary and expensive treatments using the Norton Scale.

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    ABSTRACT: Pressure ulcer (also known as pressure sore, bedsore, ischemia, decubitus ulcer) is a global challenge for today’s healthcare society. Found in several locations in the human body such as the sacrum, heel, back of the head, shoulder, knee caps, it occurs when soft tissues are under continuous loading and a subject’s mobility is restricted (bedbound/chair bound). Blood flow in soft tissues becomes insufficient leading to tissue necrosis (cell death) and pressure ulcer. The subject’s physiological parameters (age, body mass index) and types of body support surface materials (mattress) are also factors in the formation of pressure ulcer. The economic impacts of these are huge, and the subject’s quality of life is reduced in many ways. There are several methods of detecting and preventing ulceration in human body. Detection depends on assessing local pressure on tissue and prevention on scales of risk used to assess a subject prior to admission. There are also various types of mattresses (air cushioned/liquid filled/foam) available to prevent ulceration. But, despite this work, pressure ulcers remain common.This article reviews the aetiology, cost, detection and prevention of these ulcers.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Pressure ulcers are preventable adverse events. Organizational differences may influence the quality of prevention across wards and hospitals. Objective To investigate the prevalence of pressure ulcers, patient related risk factors, the use of preventive measures and how much of the pressure ulcer variance is at patient, ward and hospital level. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Six of the 11 invited hospitals in south-eastern Norway agreed to participate. Participants: Inpatients ≥ 18 years at 88 somatic hospital wards (N = 1,209). Patients in paediatric and maternity wards and day surgery patients were excluded. Methods The methodology for pressure ulcer prevalence studies developed by the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel was used, including demographic data, the Braden scale, skin assessment, the location and severity of pressure ulcers and preventive measures. Multilevel analysis was used to investigate variance across hierarchical levels. Results The prevalence was 18.2% for pressure ulcer category I-IV, 7.2% when category I was excluded. Among patients at risk of pressure ulcers, 44.3% had pressure redistributing support surfaces in bed and only 22.3% received planned repositioning in bed. Multilevel analysis showed that although the dominant part of the variance in the occurrence of pressure ulcers was at patient level there was also a significant amount of variance at ward level. There was, however, no significant variance at hospital level. Conclusions Pressure ulcer prevalence in this Norwegian sample is similar to comparable European studies. At-risk patients were less likely to receive preventive measures than patients in earlier studies. There was significant variance in the occurrence of pressure ulcers at ward level but not at hospital level, indicating that although interventions for improvement are basically patient related, improvement of procedures and organization at ward level may also be important.
    International Journal of Nursing Studies 07/2014; 52(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2014.07.005 · 2.25 Impact Factor

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