The prevalence and impact of major life stressors among pathological gamblers.
ABSTRACT Major traumatic events were discovered in the histories of 23% of pathological gamblers seeking hospital treatment. These high-trauma patients were compared with groups of gambler patients who had experienced insignificant, low, or moderate amounts of life trauma. High-trauma patients tended, as measured by standard psychometrics, to be more depressed, anxious, and avoidant in personality style; they were also more likely to be abusing alcohol or other drugs. In their discussion the authors focus on the concept of learned dysthymia, a chronic state of negative affect related to cumulative life trauma and seemingly instrumental in potentiating addictive euphoria.
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ABSTRACT: Background: The current study aims to identify predictors of pathological gambling (PG) severity, taking gender differences into account, in an outpatient sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. Methods: The sample for this study consisted of 103 subjects (51 women and 52 men) meeting current DSM-IV-TR criteria for PG. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine different risk factors (gender, age, impulsivity, sensation seeking, self-esteem) and risk markers (depression, anxiety, gambling-related thoughts, substance abuse) as predictors of PG severity. Results: Impulsivity, maladjustment in everyday life and age at gambling onset were the best predictors in the overall sample. When gender differences were taken into account, duration of gambling disorder in women and depression and impulsivity in men predicted PG severity. In turn, a high degree of severity in the South Oaks Gambling Screen score was related to older age and more familiy support in women and to low self-esteem and alcohol abuse in men. Female gamblers were older than male gamblers and started gambling later in life, but became dependent on gambling more quickly than men. Conclusions: Further research should examine these data to tailor treatment to specific patients' needs according to sex and individual characteristics.European Addiction Research 11/2012; 19(3):146-154. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to examine the associations between psychiatric disorders and pathological gambling (PG) and the clustering of psychiatric disorders in high risk gambler populations. The sample comprised 140 regular gamblers who were recruited from the general public. A variety of self- report and semi structured questionnaires was administered, including the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, The Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4th Edition, NORC DSM-IV Screen for Gambling Problems Self- administered and Problem Gambling Severity Index. Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders and personality disturbances were found to be more prevalent amongst pathological gamblers than other gamblers with the strongest differences observed for mood and anxiety-related disorders. Almost two-thirds of pathological gamblers reported both an anxiety or mood disorder in conjunction with another type of disorder. These differences between the gambling groups existed even after controlling for gender. The results highlight the high rates of co-morbidity in pathological gamblers in the community and the extent to which anxiety and mood disorders co-existing with other forms of pathology. These results highlight the significant challenges facing treatment services in the treatment of PG and the extent to which this should be treated as the primary disorder.Journal of Gambling Behavior 06/2013; · 1.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract: Internet gambling participation is rapidly increasing, however little is known about potential links between internet gambling and problem gambling. This study examined the predictors of online problem gambling and whether these differed from established predictors of offline problem gambling. Data were obtained online in response to posts on 32 international gambling websites (n=1,119). Potential correlates included demographic questions, gambling activities, frequency of gambling, and reasons for gambling online. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that compared to non-problem gamblers, online problem gamblers were more likely to be male, smoke cigarettes, gamble alone, have a disability, lie about their age online, gamble online for more than four hours at a time, engage in two or more online gambling activities regularly, gamble after a near miss, and drink alcohol while gambling online. Therefore, characteristics predictive of offline problem gambling are similar to those predicting online problem gambling. As a result online gambling could potentially be problematic for those individuals who have problems with gambling more generally.International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 01/2013; · 0.86 Impact Factor