Sex reassignment surgery in Europe: a survey.
ABSTRACT Since the first publications on a sex reassignment operation in Denmark in the early fifties, the European environment in which sex reassignment surgery (SRS) takes place has changed drastically. However the possibilities differ considerably between one country and another. To get a picture of the European situation a questionnaire was sent out to gender clinics and private practitioners treating transsexuals in 15 European countries. Questions were asked about evaluation of candidates for a treatment program, details of such programs, the legal and financial situation in the different countries and attitudes and place of psychotherapy in the SRS procedure. By and large there seems to be fairly good consensus within those European SRS treatment programs we had the opportunity to evaluate.
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ABSTRACT: Formal epidemiological studies on the incidence and prevalence of gender identity disorder (GID) or transsexualism have not been conducted. Accordingly, crude estimates of prevalence have had to rely on indirect methods, such as parental endorsement of behavioral items pertaining to GID on omnibus questionnaires for children and youth or the number of adult patients seeking contra-sex hormonal treatment or sex-transformative surgery at hospital- or university-based gender clinics. Data from child and adolescent parent-report questionnaires show that the frequent wish to be of the other sex is quite low but that periodic cross-gender behavior is more common. In the general population, cross-gender behavior is more common in girls than it is in boys but boys are referred to gender identity clinics more frequently than are girls. Prevalence estimates of GID in adults indicate that it is higher in natal males than in natal females although this may be accounted for by between-sex variation in sexual orientation subtypes. Prevalence estimates of GID in adults based on clinic-referred samples suggest an increase in more recent cohorts. It remains unclear whether this represents a true increase in prevalence or simply greater comfort in the seeking out of clinical care as professionals become more attuned to the psychosocial and biomedical needs of transgendered people.International Journal of Transgenderism 05/2009; 11(1):8-18.
Article: Masculinity and female bodies[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The visibility of feminine-to-masculine (FTM) transgenderism increased considerably in the 1990s. The late modern/postmodern concept of the body as malleable in service of (gendered) identity presentation facilitated this upsurge in two ways: first, transgenderism became intelligible in society through this discourse. Second, representations of masculinity became increasingly corporeal, performative, and thereby more adoptable for a female-bodied person. In addition, certain developments in the politics and circumstances of the transgender organizations, previously dominated by MTF transgenderists, now advanced the activity and participation of FTMs in particular. The rise of female masculinity underlines the general change of masculinity towards more emphasized corporeality.NORA Nordic Journal of Women s Studies 01/2003; 11(1):40-54.
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ABSTRACT: With the upcoming seventh edition of the Standards of Care (SOC), this article addresses various relevant aspects of the assessment and treatment of gender-dysphoric children and adolescents. In this article, the recently published literature on the phenomenology, the diagnostic process, and the psychological, social, and physical treatment options are reviewed. On the basis of the existing literature, no major changes are warranted. Recommendations for adjustments concern (1) the acknowledgement that childhood GID and adolescent GID are related, but not entirely similar, phenomena; (2) a more precise indication of which areas of functioning should be explored during the diagnostic phase; (3) an elaboration on the informed consent procedure; (4) the distinction between the purposes of the GnRH analogues and cross-sex hormone use (diagnostic versus treatment); (5) complete social gender changes long before puberty; and (6) monitoring the physical development during pubertal suppression.International Journal of Transgenderism 07/2009; 11(2):100-109.