Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)

Department of Postgraduate Medicine, University of Keele, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffs.
The British Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 7.99). 07/1987; 150(6):782-6. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.150.6.782
Source: PubMed


The development of a 10-item self-report scale (EPDS) to screen for Postnatal Depression in the community is described. After extensive pilot interviews a validation study was carried out on 84 mothers using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for depressive illness obtained from Goldberg's Standardised Psychiatric Interview. The EPDS was found to have satisfactory sensitivity and specificity, and was also sensitive to change in the severity of depression over time. The scale can be completed in about 5 minutes and has a simple method of scoring. The use of the EPDS in the secondary prevention of Postnatal Depression is discussed.

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    • "The socio - demographic questionnaire was developed by the Authors of the study in order to assess the composition of the nuclear family , the educational background , the story of the couple ' s relationship and general information about the course of pregnancy and causes of premature delivery . The EPDS ( Cox et al . , 1987 ) is a self - report questionnaire composed of 10 items scored on a 4 - point Likert scale ( ranging from 0 " never " to 3 " always " ) designed to assess postpartum depression . The total score can range from 0 to 30 ."
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The study explored fathers' experience of premature birth during the hospitalization of their infants, analyzing levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms as compared with mothers. Moreover the Italian version of the Clinical Interview for Parents of High-Risk Infant (CLIP) was tested through confirmatory factor analysis. Methods: Couples of parents (N = 64) of preterm infants (gestational age < 37 weeks) were administered a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the CLIP after the admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Results: Significant levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and high percentages of subjects above the corresponding risk thresholds were found among fathers and mothers with higher scores among the latters. Confirmatory factor analysis of the CLIP showed an adequate structure, with better fit for mothers than for fathers. Conclusion: Results highlighted the importance for nurses and clinicians working in the NICU to consider not only the maternal difficulties but also the paternal ones, even if these are often more hidden and silent. In addition the CLIP may be considered an useful interview for research and clinical purposes to be used with parents of high-risk infants.
    Frontiers in Psychology 09/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01444 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; (Cox et al. 1987)) is a 10-item scale that assesses the cognitive and affective components of depressive symptomatology, while excluding somatic symptoms specific to postpartum. The EPDS has been validated for use in pregnant and postpartum women and the sensitivity and specificity was 86 and 78 %, respectively (Cox et al. 1987). The EPDS was administered to assess depressive symptoms during routine postpartum visits, which are typically scheduled 4–6 weeks post-delivery (M=4.5±1.8 weeks). "
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency and elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines have each been associated individually with postpartum depression (PPD). African American women are at increased risk for prenatal vitamin D deficiency, inflammation, and prenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms, but biological risk factors for PPD in this population have rarely been tested. This prospective study tested whether low prenatal vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25[OH]D) predicted PPD symptomatology in pregnant African American women and whether high levels of prenatal inflammatory cytokines interacted with low 25(OH)D in effects on PPD symptoms. Vitamin D status was measured in the first trimester in a sample of 91 African American pregnant women who had a second trimester blood sample assayed for inflammatory markers. Depressive symptoms were assessed at a postpartum visit. An inverse association between prenatal log 25(OH)D and PPD symptomatology approached significance (β = -0.209, p = 0.058), and interleukin-6 and IL-6/IL-10 ratio significantly moderated the effect. Among women with higher levels of inflammatory markers, lower prenatal log 25(OH)D was associated with significantly higher PPD symptoms (p < 0.05). These preliminary results are intriguing because, if replicable, easy translational opportunities, such as increasing vitamin D status in pregnant women with elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, may reduce PPD symptoms.
    Archives of Women s Mental Health 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00737-015-0585-1 · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    • "Depressive symptoms (1) The Spanish version (Garcia-Esteve et al. 2003) of the EPDS (Cox et al. 1987) was used to assess depressive symptoms at 8 and 32 weeks postpartum. Several studies suggest that the EPDS is a good measure of distress levels among mothers (Fisher et al. 2002; Morse et al. 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: The transition to motherhood is stressful as it requires several important changes in family dynamics, finances, and working life, along with physical and psychological adjustments. This study aimed at determining whether some forms of coping might predict postpartum depressive symptomatology. A total of 1626 pregnant women participated in a multi-centric longitudinal study. Different evaluations were performed 8 and 32 weeks after delivery. Depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the structured Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS). The brief Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences (COPE) scale was used to measure coping strategies 2-3 days postpartum. Some coping strategies differentiate between women with and without postpartum depression. A logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relationships between the predictors of coping strategies and major depression (according to DSM-IV criteria). In this model, the predictor variables during the first 32 weeks were self-distraction (OR 1.18, 95 % CI 1.04-1.33), substance use (OR 0.58, 95 % CI 0.35-0.97), and self-blame (OR 1.18, 95 % CI 1.04-1.34). In healthy women with no psychiatric history, some passive coping strategies, both cognitive and behavioral, are predictors of depressive symptoms and postpartum depression and help differentiate between patients with and without depression.
    Archives of Women s Mental Health 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00737-015-0581-5 · 2.16 Impact Factor
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