The fate of inorganic phosphate and pH in regional myocardial ischemia and infarction: a noninvasive 31P NMR study.
ABSTRACT To determine the characteristic appearance of phosphorus (31P) nuclear magnetic resonance spectra in acute and chronic myocardial infarction in situ, cardiac-gated depth-resolved surface coil spectroscopy (DRESS) at 1.5 T was used to monitor 31P NMR spectra from localized volumes in the left anterior canine myocardium for up to 5 days following permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Coronary occlusion initially produced regional ischemia manifested as significant reductions in the phosphocreatine (PCr) to inorganic phosphate (Pi) ratios and intracellular pH (P less than 0.05, Student's t test) in endocardially displaced spectra acquired in periods as short as 50 to 150 s postocclusion. Spectra acquired subsequently revealed either (i) restoration of near-normal phosphate metabolism sometime between 10 and about 50 min postocclusion or (ii) advancing ischemic phosphate metabolism at about an hour postocclusion, and/or (iii) maintenance of depressed PCr/Pi ratios for up to 5 days postocclusion with a return of the apparent pH to near normal values between 6 and 15 h postocclusion. Postmortem examination of animals exhibiting the first type of behavior revealed the existence of coronary collateral vessels. The last type of behavior indicates that Pi remains substantially localized in damaged myocardium for days following infarction. The location and size of infarctions were determined postmortem by staining excised hearts. The smallest infarctions detected by 31P DRESS weighed 4.9 and 7.5 g. The most acidic pH measured in vivo was 5.9 +/- 0.2. Infarctions aged 1/2 day to 5 days were characterized by elevated but broad Pi resonances at 5.1 +/- 0.2 ppm relative to PCr and significantly depressed PCr/Pi ratios (P less than 0.002, Student's t test) relative to preocclusion values. Contamination of Pi resonances by phosphomonoester (PM) components is a significant problem for preocclusion Pi and pH measurements. These results should be applicable to the detection and identification of human myocardial infarction using 31P NMR and DRESS.
- Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 04/2009; 54(3):255-277. · 8.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 31P–NMR spectroscopy has the potential to assess myocardial damage directly and noninvasively by ascertaining the relative abundances of phosphorus-containing compounds relevant to metabolism under stress conditions. Decrease in the PCr/ATP ratio during exercise is an indicator of the level of stress to which the myocardium is subject. This ratio will remain constant under mild to moderate exercise conditions in a healthy subject, but may show a precipitous decrease even under mild exercise when regions of the myocardium are ischemic. The studies examined here indicate that cardiac patients with some forms of ischemia showed a PCr/ATP ratio decrease even under light exercise, while no decrease was observed in patients whose heart disease was known to be nonischemic. Hypertension and nonstenotic chest pain in women can, in some cases, produce a decrease in PCr/ATP ratio. Only the hypertensive patients showed a significant difference in the prestress PCr/ATP ratio when compared with controls. These studies suggest that 31P–NMR spectroscopy before and during mild exercise in the bore of the magnet can be a useful indicator of the presence or absence of an ischemic component to myocardial disorder. © 2000 Biomedical Engineering Society.Annals of Biomedical Engineering 08/2000; 28(8):930-933. · 3.23 Impact Factor