To determine the characteristic appearance of phosphorus (31P) nuclear magnetic resonance spectra in acute and chronic myocardial infarction in situ, cardiac-gated depth-resolved surface coil spectroscopy (DRESS) at 1.5 T was used to monitor 31P NMR spectra from localized volumes in the left anterior canine myocardium for up to 5 days following permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Coronary occlusion initially produced regional ischemia manifested as significant reductions in the phosphocreatine (PCr) to inorganic phosphate (Pi) ratios and intracellular pH (P less than 0.05, Student's t test) in endocardially displaced spectra acquired in periods as short as 50 to 150 s postocclusion. Spectra acquired subsequently revealed either (i) restoration of near-normal phosphate metabolism sometime between 10 and about 50 min postocclusion or (ii) advancing ischemic phosphate metabolism at about an hour postocclusion, and/or (iii) maintenance of depressed PCr/Pi ratios for up to 5 days postocclusion with a return of the apparent pH to near normal values between 6 and 15 h postocclusion. Postmortem examination of animals exhibiting the first type of behavior revealed the existence of coronary collateral vessels. The last type of behavior indicates that Pi remains substantially localized in damaged myocardium for days following infarction. The location and size of infarctions were determined postmortem by staining excised hearts. The smallest infarctions detected by 31P DRESS weighed 4.9 and 7.5 g. The most acidic pH measured in vivo was 5.9 +/- 0.2. Infarctions aged 1/2 day to 5 days were characterized by elevated but broad Pi resonances at 5.1 +/- 0.2 ppm relative to PCr and significantly depressed PCr/Pi ratios (P less than 0.002, Student's t test) relative to preocclusion values. Contamination of Pi resonances by phosphomonoester (PM) components is a significant problem for preocclusion Pi and pH measurements. These results should be applicable to the detection and identification of human myocardial infarction using 31P NMR and DRESS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postreperfusion regional myocardial dysfunction may be associated with depletion of high energy phosphate compounds during ischemia and with their relatively slow repletion during reperfusion. However, few studies have correlated relatively rapid changes in regional myocardial function (sonomicrometers) and blood flow (microspheres) with high energy phosphate concentrations measured using phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in intact large animal models of regional myocardial ischemia. The left anterior descending coronary artery of mongrel dogs was abruptly occluded for 17.1 +/- 1.9 minutes and then completely released; measurements were made for an additional 22 minutes. Transmural blood flow decreased from 1.07 +/- 0.25 to 0.25 +/- 0.10 ml/(min X g) and holosystolic expansion was observed in all dogs (segmental systolic shortening decreased from 9.3 +/- 3.7 to -6.3 +/- 6.0%). Phosphocreatine (PCr) measured during 4.4 minute sampling intervals decreased to steady state within the first sampling period after occlusion and was 45.9 +/- 17.0% of control at the end of the occlusion, whereas beta-adenosine triphosphate (beta-ATP) reached its lowest level early after reperfusion (72.7 +/- 13.3% of control). The ratio of PCr to inorganic phosphate (Pi) decreased during the occlusion (3.34 +/- 0.75 versus 1.01 +/- 0.61) but returned to control level early during reperfusion. The ratio of PCr to beta-ATP also decreased during coronary occlusion (2.16 +/- 0.39 versus 1.29 +/- 0.39) but did not return to control level during reperfusion. Significant correlations were observed between the intensity of ischemia (reduced blood flow) and reductions in regional contractile function, PCr, beta-ATP, myocardial pH and the increase in Pi during the coronary occlusion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/1987; 10(3):673-81. DOI:10.1016/S0735-1097(87)80212-7 · 16.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac-gated phosphorus (31P) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic imaging with surface coils resolves in three dimensions the spatial distribution of high energy phosphate metabolites in the human heart noninvasively. 31P spectra derive from 6- to 14-cm3 volumes of myocardium in the anterior left ventricle, septum, and apex, at depths of up to about 8 cm from the chest, as identified by proton (1H) NMR anatomical images acquired without moving the subject. Spectroscopic images are acquired in 9 to 21 min at 1.5 T. Metabolite concentrations are quantified with reference to a standard located outside the chest, yielding normal in vivo concentrations of phosphocreatine and adenosine triphosphate of about 11.0 +/- 2.7 (SD) and 6.9 +/- 1.6 mumol/g of wet heart tissue, respectively. High energy phosphate contents did not vary significantly with location in the normal myocardium, but 2,3-diphosphoglycerate signals from blood varied with subject and location.
Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 06/1990; 14(3):425-34. DOI:10.1002/mrm.1910140302 · 3.57 Impact Factor
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