Dynamics of a stressful encounter: cognitive appraisal, coping, and encounter outcomes.
ABSTRACT Despite the importance that is attributed to coping as a factor in psychological and somatic health outcomes, little is known about actual coping processes, the variables that influence them, and their relation to the outcomes of the stressful encounters people experience in their day-to-day lives. This study uses an intraindividual analysis of the interrelations among primary appraisal (what was at stake in the encounter), secondary appraisal (coping options), eight forms of problem- and emotion-focused coping, and encounter outcomes in a sample of community-residing adults. Coping was strongly related to cognitive appraisal; the forms of coping that were used varied depending on what was at stake and the options for coping. Coping was also differentially related to satisfactory and unsatisfactory encounter outcomes. The findings clarify the functional relations among appraisal and coping variables and the outcomes of stressful encounters.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Christine Dunkel Schetter, Jul 03, 2015
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ABSTRACT: There is growing recognition that identification with social groups can protect and enhance health and well-being, thereby constituting a kind of "social cure." The present research explores the role of control as a novel mediator of the relationship between shared group identity and well-being. Five studies provide evidence for this process. Group identification predicted significantly greater perceived personal control across 47 countries (Study 1), and in groups that had experienced success and failure (Study 2). The relationship was observed longitudinally (Study 3) and experimentally (Study 4). Manipulated group identification also buffered a loss of personal control (Study 5). Across the studies, perceived personal control mediated social cure effects in political, academic, community, and national groups. The findings reveal that the personal benefits of social groups come not only from their ability to make people feel good, but also from their ability to make people feel capable and in control of their lives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 05/2015; DOI:10.1037/pspi0000019 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Organizations may fail to keep their commitments to their employees, at times leading to psychological contract violation. Although many victims of violation remain with their employer despite such adverse experiences, little research exists on their responses in the aftermath of violation. This paper develops a post-violation model to explain systematically how violation victims respond to and cope with violation and the effects this process has on their subsequent psychological contract. Central to post-violation are the victims' beliefs regarding the likelihood of violation resolution and the factors affecting it. The model specifies how the victim engages in a self-regulation process that results in an array of potential psychological contract outcomes. Possible outcomes include reactivation of the original pre-violation contract, the formation of a new contract that may be more or less attractive than the original, or a state of dissolution wherein the victim fails to form a functional psychological contract with the employer. The research and practical implications of this model are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Journal of Organizational Behavior 02/2015; 36(4). DOI:10.1002/job.1997 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated the long-term effects of the 2012 war on children's psychological distress in Gaza Strip. It was hypothesized that a) greater levels of exposure to war trauma would be associated with greater behavioral and emotional disorders, neuroticism, and PTSD symptoms; b) children who rely more on problem-focused coping will manifest less behavioral and emotional disorders, neuroticism, and PTSD symptoms whereas children who rely more on emotion-focused coping will manifest higher levels of behavioral and emotional disorders, neuroticism, and PTSD symptoms; and c) certain children's characteristics (i.e., age, gender, and family income) would be predictive of children's behavioral and emotional disorders, neuroticism, and PTSD. Participants were 205 males and females aged 9 to 16 years. Questionnaires were administered in an interview format with participants at schools. Results indicated that approximately 30 percent of the Palestinian children who were exposed to higher levels of war traumas have developed PTSD with excess risk for co-morbidity with other disorders such as emotional symptoms and neuroticism. The findings revealed that children with lower family income reported higher levels of emotion and behavioral disorders and neuroticism. While emotion-focused coping was positively associated with emotional and behavioral problems, neuroticism, and PTSD, problem-focused coping was negatively associated with neuroticism and PTSD. The clinical implications of these conclusions were discussed to formulate cognitive-behavioral coping interventions that can lead to positive outcomes in the posttrauma environment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 01/2015; 85(1):72-9. DOI:10.1037/ort0000039 · 1.50 Impact Factor