Dynamics of a stressful encounter: Cognitive appraisal, coping, and encounter outcomes.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 992-1003

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (Impact Factor: 5.08). 06/1986; 50(5):992-1003.
Source: PubMed


Despite the importance that is attributed to coping as a factor in psychological and somatic health outcomes, little is known about actual coping processes, the variables that influence them, and their relation to the outcomes of the stressful encounters people experience in their day-to-day lives. This study uses an intraindividual analysis of the interrelations among primary appraisal (what was at stake in the encounter), secondary appraisal (coping options), eight forms of problem- and emotion-focused coping, and encounter outcomes in a sample of community-residing adults. Coping was strongly related to cognitive appraisal; the forms of coping that were used varied depending on what was at stake and the options for coping. Coping was also differentially related to satisfactory and unsatisfactory encounter outcomes. The findings clarify the functional relations among appraisal and coping variables and the outcomes of stressful encounters.

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Available from: Christine Dunkel Schetter, Oct 09, 2015
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    • "Estudio de las Propiedades Psicométricas del Brief COPE para una muestra de mujeres uruguayas Las diferentes respuestas personales ante las situaciones estresoras (independientemente de la naturaleza de dichas situaciones) resultan de los esfuerzos individuales por hacer frente a la fuente de estrés, modificarla, o bien al regular sus respuestas emocionales ante la misma, dotándola de un significado diferente para reducir su grado de amenaza (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984, 1986; Pearlin, 1989). Podemos denominar estrategias de afrontamiento a las conductas de las personas que buscan frenar, amortiguar y, de ser posible, neutralizar o eliminar los efectos de las situaciones estresoras. "
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    ABSTRACT: La escala Brief COPE (Carver, 1997) es la ampliamente utilizada versión abreviada del COPE inventory (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989), que ha demostrado ser de utilidad para evaluar las estrategias de afrontamiento en investigaciones en salud. El Brief COPE-versión en español (Perczek, Carver, Price, & Pozo-Kaderman, 2000) consta de 12 subescalas compuestas por dos ítems cada una. Se estudian las propiedades psicométricas del Brief COPE, en su versión en castellano a partir del estudio en una muestra de 203 mujeres adultas pertenecientes a la población general uruguaya. El Análisis Factorial Exploratorio, analizando los ítems, indica la existencia de 4 factores para la muestra estudiada. La agrupación resultó considerablemente coincidente con la reportada por los autores de la escala. Fiabilidad y evidencias de validez obtenidas con el Brief COPE para la presente muestra avalan su uso en el ámbito de la investigación en población del sexo femenino en Uruguay.
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    • "l " by Rothbaum et al . ( 1982 ) , also marks the second possible outcome of experience , with key importance in terms of appraisal / understanding . Where before a viewer had structured a task as an exercise in self - reinforcement , this stage carries with it an implicit acceptance of insufficiency and need for protecting the self . According to Folkman et al . ( 1986 , p . 1000"
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    ABSTRACT: This paper explores a fundamental similarity between cognitive models for crying and conceptions of insight, enlightenment or, in the context of art, “aesthetic experience.” All of which center on a process of initial discrepancy, followed by schema change, and conclude in a proposed adjustment or “transformation” of one's self image/world-view. Because tears are argued to mark one of the only physical indicators of this cognitive outcome, and because the process is particularly salient in examples with art, I argue that crying may provide an intriguing marker for empirical study of art experience. To explore this parallel, I offer a review of crying theory as well as of tearful cases with art, pointing out the key cognitive elements. I then introduce an expanded crying model, based upon our recent model of art experience which does consider insight and adjustment or application of the self. I also consider multiple emotional and evaluative factors, which may co-vary with crying response. This theoretical discussion is then applied in three exploratory, survey-based studies conducted within U.K., Japan and U.S. museums, and including what is claimed to be the 20th century's most tear-inducing abstract paintings. Results showed—with cross-cultural consistency—significant relation between “feeling like crying” and a collection of responses posited to indicate a full progression to aesthetic experience, as well as to positive assessment of artwork goodness, beauty, understanding of meaning, and to final reported self reflection and epiphany. I argue that, beyond the question of why we may cry, by considering the implications of what tears may indicate within information processing, feeling like crying may indeed offer a compelling basis for empirically identifying outcomes of perceptual (art) experience.
    Frontiers in Psychology 07/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01006 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "Coping has been defined as a 'person's constantly changing cognitive and behavioural efforts to manage specific external and/or internal demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the person's resources' (Folkman et al., 1986: 993). The concept covers both emotional regulation and concrete problem-solving strategies. "
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