Effect of small cue-response separation on pattern discrimination in macaques (Macaca fuscata and M. mulatta).

Journal of Comparative Psychology (Impact Factor: 1.89). 07/1986; 100(2):137-42. DOI: 10.1037//0735-7036.100.2.137
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In order to elucidate the nature of the effect of small cue-response separations on pattern discriminations by monkeys, three studies were performed. When training on a pattern discrimination with a cue-response separation was discontinued during performance at the chance level, there was no saving on the rate of learning a second task (with identical cues but a different cue-response separation) relative to the performance of naive control animals. By contrast, when training was discontinued at a performance level a little better than chance, there was significant saving on learning a second task. After learning the second task, a third task with new pattern cues was learned, with marked saving on the duration of performance at the chance level. The results indicate that during the initial stage of performance at the chance level, monkeys do not attend to cues if there is even a small separation between the cue and the response site.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A preference for novelty paradigm was used to investigate whether mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena), an arboreal non-human primate species, were able to discriminate and to categorize different visual stimuli belonging to natural (food items) and abstract (non-food items) categories. In a comparative perspective human subjects were tested with the same procedure and the same stimuli. Two out of four mangabeys and three out of the four humans showed significant preference for novelty when comparing food versus non-food items. Hence they discriminated between these two sets of items. The two mangabeys and one non-adult human subject sorted the food items in one category, showing no preference for novelty when comparing known and unknown food-items and different views of the same food items. In contrast the two adult human subjects who showed preference for novelty in the between-category, did not show preference for novelty when comparing known and unknown food-items but did show such a preference when comparing different views of the same food items. Compared to human performances, the results suggest that mangabeys are able to form at least a perceptual category of natural, ecologically relevant stimuli.
    Behavioural processes 07/2001; 55(1):51-64. · 1.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the current study, we examined the planning abilities of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) by training them on a five-item list composed of coloured photographs and then testing them on switch and mask trials. In contrast to previous studies where monkeys made responses using a joystick, in the current study, monkeys made responses directly to a touch screen. On switch trials, after a response to the first list item, the on-screen positions of two list items were exchanged. Performance on trials in which the second and third list items were exchanged was poorer compared to normal (non-switch) trials for all subjects. When the third and fourth items were exchanged, however, only one subject continued to show performance deficits. On mask trials, following a response to the first item, the remaining items were covered by opaque white squares. When two items were masked, all four subjects responded to each masked item at a level significantly above chance. When three items were masked, however, only one subjected was able to respond to all three masked items at a level significantly above chance. The results of the present study indicate that three of our four monkeys planned one response ahead while a single monkey planned two responses ahead. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to previous studies on planning in chimpanzees and monkeys.
    Animal Cognition 12/2010; 14(3):317-24. · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Appetitive instrumental discrimination learning procedures provide for CAM (cue and manipulandum) when the reward cue (discriminative stimulus positively correlated with positive reinforcement) is located at the response manipulandum (object that when contacted or manipulated defines the performance of the instrumental response). Evidence reviewed shows that CAM induces excessive and compulsive instrumental responding relative to otherwise comparable non-CAM control procedures. In humans, symptoms of drug abuse are particularly likely when the drug-taking implement (response manipulandum at which instrumental drug-taking is directed) is also predictive of the drug's rewarding effects (reward cue). Evidence that the predictive relationship between a drug-taking implement and drug reward relates to drug abuse is reviewed, and implications for treatment and prevention are considered. CAM is related to neurobiological models of drug abuse that emphasize the role of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). CAM produces convergence of DA-mediated responding for conditioned reinforcement with DA mediation of psychomotor activation and incentive-motivational processes to yield reflexive cue-directed responding not observed in non-CAM controls.
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 02/1996; 20(3):505-35. · 9.44 Impact Factor