In order to elucidate the nature of the effect of small cue-response separations on pattern discriminations by monkeys, three studies were performed. When training on a pattern discrimination with a cue-response separation was discontinued during performance at the chance level, there was no saving on the rate of learning a second task (with identical cues but a different cue-response separation) relative to the performance of naive control animals. By contrast, when training was discontinued at a performance level a little better than chance, there was significant saving on learning a second task. After learning the second task, a third task with new pattern cues was learned, with marked saving on the duration of performance at the chance level. The results indicate that during the initial stage of performance at the chance level, monkeys do not attend to cues if there is even a small separation between the cue and the response site.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With a three-choice instrumental discrimination procedure, pigeons were taught to distinguish small spherical objects from
nonspherical objects. Spherical objects were defined as positive, nonspherical objects as negative. A device allowing an automatic
presentation of the stimuli was employed. The subjects actually pecked the objects, and grain rewards were presented directly
beside the correct objects. Acquisition was rapid, with the birds reaching a criterion of 80% correct choices within less
than 150 trials. There was evidence that more than 200 objects were remembered individually over 3 months. Pigeons transferred
the discrimination of spherical/nonspherical objects to novel objects. The criteria by which the birds judged the sphericity
of objects seemed to be similar to those applied by humans. They could apply the categorization in a relational manner and
generalize it to apply to photographs and drawings of objects. The categorization competence was retained for at least 3 months.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Animal learning studies reveal that locating the reward cue (discriminative stimulus positively correlated with the presentation of positive reinforcement) at the site of the response manipulandum (object contacted in performing the instrumental response), an arrangement referred to as CAM (cue and manipulandum), induces excessive instrumental responding. CAM induces excessive responding even when responding is negatively related to reinforcement and serves only to delay or cancel reinforcement, revealing that excessive responding induced by CAM is unrestrainable and compulsive. In addition, the response form induced by CAM resembles patterns of consummatory behaviors. Thus, animal learning studies reveal that CAM induces excessive and compulsive appetitive-consummatory responding that is triggered by objects predictive of rewarding substances. The CAM model defines conditions under which the drug-taking implement the response manipulandum at which instrumental drug-taking behavior is directed) will contribute to the development of excessive and compulsive drug-taking in humans. Implementassisted drug-taking procedures in humans provide for CAM whenever the drug-taking implement is positively correlated with the drug's reinforcing effects. This correlation is highest when the drug-taking implement is employed only to consume the drug and the drug is consumed in no other fashion. Evidence relating drug-taking implements to drug abuse is reviewed and implications for prevention and therapy are considered.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Appetitive instrumental discrimination learning procedures provide for CAM (cue and manipulandum) when the reward cue (discriminative stimulus positively correlated with positive reinforcement) is located at the response manipulandum (object that when contacted or manipulated defines the performance of the instrumental response). Evidence reviewed shows that CAM induces excessive and compulsive instrumental responding relative to otherwise comparable non-CAM control procedures. In humans, symptoms of drug abuse are particularly likely when the drug-taking implement (response manipulandum at which instrumental drug-taking is directed) is also predictive of the drug's rewarding effects (reward cue). Evidence that the predictive relationship between a drug-taking implement and drug reward relates to drug abuse is reviewed, and implications for treatment and prevention are considered. CAM is related to neurobiological models of drug abuse that emphasize the role of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). CAM produces convergence of DA-mediated responding for conditioned reinforcement with DA mediation of psychomotor activation and incentive-motivational processes to yield reflexive cue-directed responding not observed in non-CAM controls.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.