The first two confirmed cases of type E infant botulism occurred in two 16-week-old girls in Rome, Italy. The original diagnosis for the first patient was intestinal blockage due to an ileocecal invagination, which was treated surgically. Postoperatively, the patient became unresponsive and required ventilatory assistance. A diagnosis of infant botulism was then made. The second infant presented to the same hospital 7 1/2 months later with profound weakness, hypotonicity, mydriasis, and areflexia. This case was recognized as possible botulism at admission. Both cases were confirmed by detection and identification of type E botulinal toxin in stool specimens and in enrichment cultures of those specimens. The toxigenic organisms isolated were quite different from Clostridium botulinum type E. The apparent causative organism in each case resembles Clostridium butyricum but produces a neurotoxin that is indistinguishable from type E botulinal toxin by its effects on mice and by its neutralization with type E botulinal antitoxin.
"Clostridium botulinum is a taxonomic designation for three Groups of anaerobic spore-forming bacteria that share the common characteristic of production of one or more botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) having conserved modes of action but widely varying genetic sequences (Collins and East, 1998). In addition, certain Clostridium argentinense, Clostridium baratii and Clostridium butyricum strains have been isolated that produce BoNTs (Aureli et al., 1986; Gimenez and Ciccarelli, 1970; Hall et al., 1985). BoNTs are extremely potent toxins that are of concern in public health and food safety, and they are also monitored for national security reasons. "
"However, some strains have acquired the type E botulinal neurotoxin gene (BoNT/E) and have caused both infant and classical foodborne botulism. The first recorded incident of C. butyricum type E botulism was a case of infant botulism in Italy . Further cases of intestinal colonization by toxigenic C. butyricum strains were recorded in Italy but in older patients . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some rare strains of Clostridium butyricum carry the gene encoding the botulinal type E neurotoxin and must be considered as possible hazards in certain types of food. The limiting growth conditions for C. butyricum were determined in peptone yeast glucose starch (PYGS) broth incubated anaerobically at 30°C for up to 42 days. The minimum pH values permitting growth depended on the acidulant and strain. Organic acids were more effective at inhibiting growth than HCl as expected. The lowest pH values at which growth of toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains of C. butyricum was observed in broth acidified with HCl were 4.1 and 4.2, respectively. In organic acids, however, the minimum pH varied between 4.4 and 5.1 depending on acid type and concentration. The minimum water activity for growth of toxigenic strains of C. butyricum was 0.96. The minimum growth temperatures of the toxigenic strains of C. butyricum (ca 10-11°C) were somewhat higher than for non-toxigenic ones (8°C). It was concluded that control of toxigenic C. butyricum in the food industry needs to allow for the greater pH tolerance of this species compared with proteolytic C. botulinum.
"In addition to AChRs and AChE, other proteins related to vesicles fusion are also targets of numerous toxins e.g., butulotoxins. These endopeptidases are produced by bacteria Clostridium botulinum and less commonly by C. baratii and C. butyricum [11,12]. Butulotoxin is a dimer composed of 100 kDa heavy chain and 50 kDa light chain with ZnII+ endopeptidase activity . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) is an important part of the cholinergic nerve system in the brain. Moreover, it is associated with a cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the termination of the parasympathetic nervous system. Antagonists of α7 nAChR are a wide group represented by conotoxin and bungarotoxin. Even Alzheimer's disease drug memantine acting as an antagonist in its side pathway belongs in this group. Agonists of α7 nAChR are suitable for treatment of multiple cognitive dysfunctions such as Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia. Inflammation or even sepsis can be ameliorated by the agonistic acting compounds. Preparations RG3487, SEN34625/WYE-103914, SEN12333, ABT-107, Clozapine, GTS-21, CNI-1493, and AR-R17779 are representative examples of the novel compounds with affinity toward the α7 nAChR. Pharmacological, toxicological, and medicinal significance of α7 nAChR are discussed throughout this paper.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2012; 13(2):2219-38. DOI:10.3390/ijms13022219 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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