Stability of pentamidine isethionate in 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injections.
ABSTRACT The stability of pentamidine isethionate in small-volume intravenous admixtures was studied. In an initial experiment, duplicate admixtures containing pentamidine 1 or 2 mg/mL were prepared using 100 mL each of 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags. All solutions were kept at room temperature and were assayed at various times up to 48 hours by high-performance liquid chromatography. Solutions were also examined visually and tested for pH at each assay time. In a second experiment, single admixtures containing pentamidine 2 mg/mL were prepared in 100-mL PVC bags of both 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection. After time-zero determinations of pentamidine concentration, pH, and visual clarity, solutions were allowed to run through PVC infusion sets at 20 mL/hr. Samples were collected at the distal end of each set at various times up to five hours for analysis of pentamidine concentration, pH, and clarity. All admixtures in the initial experiment retained greater than 90% of initial concentration for the 48-hour study period. However, 5% dextrose admixtures infused through PVC administration sets showed a loss in initial concentration of about 2%, while 0.9% sodium chloride admixtures lost about 10% of initial concentration after infusion through these sets. The pH of all solutions in both experiments varied by less than 0.5 units, and no particulate matter or color change was noted in any of the admixtures. In the concentrations and diluents studied, pentamidine appears to be stable for 48 hours in PVC bags. Slight losses in the initial concentrations of these solutions after infusing them through PVC infusion sets may be caused by adsorption to the set.
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ABSTRACT: Pentamidine isethionate was bacteriostatic against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus sanguis, Micrococcus sp., and Candida albicans. S. aureus was inhibited by concentrations of 16 to 64 micrograms/ml and killed by 64 to greater than or equal to 128 micrograms/ml. Staphylococcal killing was consistently greater in the presence of cations and was unaffected by methicillin resistance.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 10/1990; 34(9):1795-6. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pentamidine isethionate, an aromatic diamidine, is an antiprotozoal agent proven to decrease mortality from Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in debilitated infants and immunodeficient adults and children. Like the combination antimicrobial agent co-trimoxazole, pentamidine has been shown in retrospective studies to resolve episodes of pneumonia in approximately 41 to 87% of patients, including those with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), when used alone or as sequential therapy. Although about 45% of all patients given pentamidine experience side effects--which may include nephrotoxicity, hypotension, hypoglycaemia or local reactions--in patients with AIDS the incidence of side effects is less with pentamidine than with co-trimoxazole. Thus, despite its profile of potentially severe side effects, pentamidine isethionate is a proven antimicrobial agent with a distinct place in the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the growing population of AIDS patients.Drugs 04/1987; 33(3):242-58. · 4.13 Impact Factor