Evaluation of a xylazine-ketamine hydrochloride combination in the cat.

ABSTRACT Cardiopulmonary function was assessed in healthy cats given a xylazine-ketamine hydrochloride combination intramuscularly. Cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac index were significantly decreased. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure were also significantly decreased. Systemic vascular resistance and central venous pressure were significantly increased. Blood gas values remained stable. In conclusion, significant cardiovascular depression was noted in normal cats given the xylazine-ketamine combination at the dosages listed.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fenpropathrin, a synthetic pyrethroid widely used as an insecticide, is known to affect locomotion and memory in mammals. It is possible that exposure to pyrethroids may occur in an elderly population where transient ischemic attacks are a higher risk for occurrence with consequent changes in memory and control of movement. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether bilateral clamping of carotid arteries (BCCA), a model for ischemia, together with fenpropathrin affected memory in tests such as the passive avoidance task and fresh spatial memory in a Y-maze, as well as movement activity and movement coordination on a rotarod in mice. BCCA together with fenpropathrin significantly reduced latency in a passive avoidance task compared to controls. There were no significant differences among the groups with respect to the Y-maze, movement activity, or movement coordination. In conclusion, fenpropathrin needs to be used with caution in the presence of an elderly population at risk for ischemia, as there appears to be evidence of some memory loss in mice.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 01/2010; 73(17-18):1166-72. · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sedative, respiratory and cardiovascular effects of subcutaneously administered alfaxalone and butorphanol in a group of hyperthyroid cats. DESIGN: A prospective, single-centre observational study. METHODS: Client-owned hyperthyroid cats (n = 20) were examined and sedated with alfaxalone (3 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg) administered subcutaneously. Sedation scores, heart rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure were measured at 15-min intervals during the 45-min observation period and compared with pre-sedation values. At the end of 45 min, cats were assessed to be adequately sedated for oral administration of iodine-131 if there was minimal resistance and an intact gag reflex. RESULTS: The maximum median sedation score was reached 45 min after injection. The lowest mean heart and respiratory rates and blood pressure values occurred 30 min after injection. Significant decreases were noted in respiratory rates at all three time points (P < 0.001). Systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure measurements were also significantly decreased at 15 and 30 min after injection (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Subcutaneously administered alfaxalone and butorphanol can be used for sedation in cats undergoing procedures of short duration. Blood pressure should be monitored because of transient decreases observed in some cats. Further studies are required to determine whether the sedative, respiratory and cardiovascular effects are similar in euthyroid cats.
    Australian Veterinary Journal 04/2013; 91(4):131-136. · 0.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of xylazine–ketamine–diazepam anesthesia on heart rate, respiration rate, rectal temperature, rumen motility, peripheral blood pH, PaO2, and PaCO2 in adult female nonpregnant Awassi sheep and adult female nonpregnant Damascus goats. Anesthesia was induced using 0.1mg/kg, 5mg/kg, and 0.25mg/kg xylazine, ketamine, and diazepam respectively as a single intravenous injection. The heart rate, respiration rate, rectal temperature, rumen motility, peripheral arterial blood pH, PaO2, and PaCO2 were evaluated 15min before and at 15, 30, and 60min during anesthesia. In sheep, the heart rate, rumen motility, and PaO2 were decreased significantly (P < 0.05) at 15, 30, and 60min following anesthesia. The respiration rate and rectal temperature and blood pH were decreased significantly (P < 0.05) at 30 and 60min. The peripheral PaCO2 was increased significantly (P < 0.05) at 15 and 30min. In goats, the heart rate and rumen motility were decreased significantly (P < 0.05) at 15, 30, and 60min while the respiration rate was decreased only significantly (P < 0.05) at 60min. Rectal temperature was decreased significantly (P < 0.05) at 30 and 60min. The blood pH was decreased significantly (P < 0.05) at 15 and 30min. PaO2 was only significantly (P < 0.05) decreased at 15min while PaCO2 was increased significantly (P < 0.05) at 15 and 30min.
    Comparative Clinical Pathology 01/2010; 19(1):11-14.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 31, 2014