Alterations in cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of somatostatinlike immunoreactivity in neuropsychiatric disorders.

Archives of General Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 13.75). 01/1987; 43(12):1148-51.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The concentration of somatostatinlike immunoreactivity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from normal, healthy volunteers (n = 10) and patients with DSM-III diagnoses of major depression (n = 17), schizophrenia (n = 11), or dementia (n = 29) was measured by a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay. Statistically significant decreases in CSF concentrations of somatostatinlike immunoreactivity were seen in all three patient populations when compared with controls. These findings confirm previous reports of decreased concentrations of somatostatinlike immunoreactivity in the CSF of patients with depression and dementia and extend this observation to patients with schizophrenia as well. These findings are concordant with the view that reductions in somatostatinlike immunoreactivity concentrations are associated with diseases in which cognitive function is disturbed.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our knowledge of the pathophysiology of affect dysregulation has progressively increased, but the pharmacological treatments remain inadequate. Here, we summarize the current literature on deficits in somatostatin, an inhibitory modulatory neuropeptide, in major depression and other neurological disorders that also include mood disturbances. We focus on direct evidence in the human postmortem brain, and review rodent genetic and pharmacological studies probing the role of the somatostatin system in relation to mood. We also briefly go over pharmacological developments targeting the somatostatin system in peripheral organs and discuss the challenges of targeting the brain somatostatin system. Finally, the fact that somatostatin deficits are frequently observed across neurological disorders suggests a selective cellular vulnerability of somatostatin-expressing neurons. Potential cell intrinsic factors mediating those changes are discussed, including nitric oxide induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, high inflammatory response, high demand for neurotrophic environment, and overall aging processes. Together, based on the co-localization of somatostatin with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), its presence in dendritic-targeting GABA neuron subtypes, and its temporal-specific function, we discuss the possibility that deficits in somatostatin play a central role in cortical local inhibitory circuit deficits leading to abnormal corticolimbic network activity and clinical mood symptoms across neurological disorders.
    Frontiers in Pharmacology 09/2013; 4:110. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2013.00110
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AimNeuroinflammation may play a role in the pathogenesis of autism in some patients. The aim of this study was to measure serum levels of neurotensin (NTS) in relation to the degree of the severity of autism.Methods Serum NTS was measured in autistic children (n = 38; mean age 7.02 ± 2.03 years) and healthy, unrelated sex matched controls (n = 39); mean age 7.25 ± 1.64 years). The severity of autism symptoms was assessed using Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) scores.ResultsThe serum level of NTS was significantly (P < 0.001) lower in autistic children (mean ± S.D. = 54.71 ± 12.4 pg/ml) than control group (mean ± S.D. = 77.58 ± 10.29 pg/ml). Children with severe autism had significantly lower serum NTS levels than patients with mild to moderate autism (P < 0.002). There was significant negative correlation between serum levels of NTS and CARS SCORES (r2 = 0.79, P = 0.001).Conclusions Serum NTS levels were elevated in some autistic children and they were significantly correlated with the severity of autism. However, this is an initial report that warrants further research to determine the pathogenic role of NTS and its possible link to neuroinflammation in autism.
    Neurology Psychiatry and Brain Research 06/2013; 19(2):59–63. DOI:10.1016/j.npbr.2013.04.002 · 0.10 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Contemporary neuropsychological assessment is essentially a refinement of the neurological examination focusing on integrative central nervous system (CNS) functioning. It may be defined as the observation of an individual's behaviour in relation to a standardized stimulus which has been selected for its likelihood to provoke an abnormal response in the face of damage or dysfunction in specific neuroanatomical structures. Its theoretical basis derives from the quite separate academic traditions of cognitive psychology and behavioural neurology, their integration providing both a quantitative and qualitative approach to the understanding of the neuroanatomical substrates of cognition and to the detection of pathology.
    Psychiatry as a Neuroscience, 04/2002: pages 181 - 196; , ISBN: 9780470846469


Available from
May 27, 2014