A review of supportive psychotherapy.
ABSTRACT Although supportive psychotherapy techniques are more widely used than expressive or insight-oriented techniques, particularly with hospitalized or chronically ill patients, supportive treatment strategies have been underrepresented in the literature and not adequately taught to therapists in training. The authors review the diverse definitions and goals of supportive therapy as related to two major types of objectives. They stress the distinction between the supportive relationship, which is present to some extent in all psychotherapy, and supportive treatment, and they examine the inverse relationship between expressive and supportive therapy. Finally, selected elements and techniques of the conduct of supportive therapy, such as style of communication, respect, praise, advice, self-disclosure, and interpretation, are discussed.
- SourceAvailable from: oxfordjournals.org[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Some form of individual psychotherapy, in combination with the prescription of antipsychotic medications, is likely the most common treatment for patients with schizophrenia. In the absence of empirical data supporting the efficacy of a particular approach, psychotherapy has often been guided by ideology and deference to authority. In recent years, a reformulation of schizophrenia as a disorder requiring individualized, comprehensive treatment has allowed the development and empirical testing of new targeted and illness-phase-specific individual psychotherapies. This report reviews randomized clinical trials that have evaluated individual psychotherapy of schizophrenia in the context of changing contemporaneous beliefs about the disorder's etiology and treatment. A general approach to individual treatment, termed "flexible psychotherapy," derived from historical approaches but consistent with available clinical and research perspectives, is outlined.Schizophrenia Bulletin 02/2000; 26(1):47-72. DOI:10.1093/oxfordjournals.schbul.a033445 · 8.61 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This article discusses the significant transformation that is occurring in conceptualizing serious mental illness (SMI) and its treatment. Three key areas of that transformation are discussed: a change from a pathology perspective of people, their dysfunction, and treatment to a competence perspective; new ways of understanding the relationship between biology and human experience; and changes in the notions of causality in SMI. Significant advances are also occurring in the development of empirically validated pharmacological and psychosocial interventions, in the identification of the critical components of an effective service delivery system, and in the discovery of significant recovery rates for people with SMI. Finally, some implications for psychologists' practitioner roles, for public-private partnerships in organized health care systems, and for the role of state psychological associations are noted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)Professional Psychology Research and Practice 05/1997; 28(3):205-216. DOI:10.1037/0735-7028.28.3.205 · 1.34 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Depression and cytokines from evolutionary perspective Major depression, just like anxiety, has a crucial place in our behavioral portfolio. Neither of the conventional biological, psychological or social theories can explain the innate existence and the causality and finality of responsible brain modules and patho-physiological processes, nor can they explain the high frequency of appearance of anxiety, bipolarity, and psychotic disorders occurring in proximate, sometimes impossible to discriminate, spectra. Evolutionary paradigm appears to be a new frame encompassing all of these so called distinct approaches and psychopathologies. According to evolutionary perspective, depression is one of the most commonly utilized adaptive archetypal strategies and cytokines have essential roles both peripherally (like many interleukins) and centrally (like tumor necrosing factor alpha: TNF-α , and brain derived nerve growth factor: BDNF) in the development of the clinical picture. Drugs like interferon-alpha (a cytokine frequently used for the treatment of multiple sclerosis) commonly cause depression which can be treated or pre-treated with antidepressants. The "sickness behavior" induced by the formation of the cytokines is similar with depression in terms of phenomenology both in animals and in human. Depression, as a behavioral strategy, is both adaptive and it also serves for social signaling and interaction. With the behavioral signaling, depressive individuals inform others that they are in trouble and need help. They also give the message "I am not a source of threat or envy and I am no more a competitor" which in turn, is an equivalent of altruistic behavior. This strategy generally ends up with personal and social adaptation. If it persists beyond its aim and becomes dysfunctional, depression becomes a disorder. This perspective and the role of the cytokines in the pathophysiology of depression may constitute a reasonably good novel target for the present and future treatment strategies.