Cleft palate repair by double opposing Z-plasty.
ABSTRACT In an attempt to improve speech results following palate repair while allowing adequate maxillary growth, a palatoplasty using two opposing Z-plasties of the soft palate, one of the oral and one of the nasal layers, has been used in 22 infants. Eight patients had unilateral cleft lip and palate, eight had bilateral cleft lip and palate, and six had cleft palate. The Z-plasties facilitate effective dissection and redirection of the palatal muscles to produce an overlapping muscle sling and lengthen the velum without using tissue from the hard palate, which permits hard palate closure without pushback or lateral relaxing incisions. Of the 20 children old enough for speech evaluation, 18 have no velopharyngeal insufficiency. Two have very mild velopharyngeal insufficiency. None has required a pharyngeal flap.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The primary goal of cleft palate repair is to create an anatomically and functionally intact palate while minimally affecting maxillary growth and development. In order to produce normal speech, a child must have velopharyngeal competence, defined as the ability to completely close the velopharyngeal sphincter that separates the oropharynx and nasopharynx. The absence of this ability, termed velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI), is seen in a wide range of patients following primary cleft palate repair. This article discusses patient assessment, treatment options, and the surgical management of VPI. Recent trends and future directions in management are also presented.Clinics in plastic surgery 04/2014; 41(2):253-270. · 0.95 Impact Factor
Article: Cleft Palate Repair.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The authors begin with a discussion of the anatomy relevant to palatoplasty. Perioperative considerations are then addressed. A broad range of surgical options has evolved over time; these are discussed in their historical context. The authors present a detailed description of their preferred surgical approach. Postoperative care is then described. An examination of recent trends and controversies in the field is then offered. Finally, an approach to outcomes assessment is discussed. It is hoped that this monograph will be of use in guiding others as they embark on the highly challenging, but equally rewarding, task of perfecting the palatoplasty.Clinics in plastic surgery 04/2014; 41(2):189-210. · 0.95 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cleft palate is a relatively common deformity with various techniques described for its repair. Most techniques address the hard palate portion of the cleft with bilateral mucoperiosteal flaps transposed to the midline. This results in superimposed, linear closure layers directly over the cleft and may predispose the repair to oronasal fistula formation. This report details an alternative technique of flap rotation with an outcome analysis. A retrospective chart analysis was performed of all patients having undergone primary palatoplasty for cleft palate. Demographics and cleft Veau type were recorded. Postoperative speech outcomes were assessed by standardized speech evaluation performed by 2 speech language pathologists. The presence and location of oronasal fistulae was assessed and recorded by the surgeon and speech language pathologists in follow-up evaluations. The study revealed an overall incidence of velopharyngeal insufficiency of 5.7% using this surgical technique. It also revealed a fistula rate of 8.6%. Secondary surgery has been successful in those patients in which it was indicated. Eleven (31%) patients were diagnosed with Robin sequence. This technique demonstrates excellent early outcomes in a difficult subset of cleft patients including a high proportion of those with Pierre Robin sequence. The technique addresses the inherent disadvantages to a linear closure over the bony cleft. The variability in its design provides the surgeon another option for correction of this deformity.Annals of plastic surgery 03/2014; · 1.29 Impact Factor