Cleft palate repair by double opposing Z-plasty.
ABSTRACT In an attempt to improve speech results following palate repair while allowing adequate maxillary growth, a palatoplasty using two opposing Z-plasties of the soft palate, one of the oral and one of the nasal layers, has been used in 22 infants. Eight patients had unilateral cleft lip and palate, eight had bilateral cleft lip and palate, and six had cleft palate. The Z-plasties facilitate effective dissection and redirection of the palatal muscles to produce an overlapping muscle sling and lengthen the velum without using tissue from the hard palate, which permits hard palate closure without pushback or lateral relaxing incisions. Of the 20 children old enough for speech evaluation, 18 have no velopharyngeal insufficiency. Two have very mild velopharyngeal insufficiency. None has required a pharyngeal flap.
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ABSTRACT: A palatal fistula is a common complication of cleft palate repair. Although a buccal musculomucosal flap (BMMF) is effective for fistula repair, it does have the following problems: a second operation may be required to release the pedicle on the oral side and unilateral BMMF cannot close mucosal defects of both the nasal and oral sides. A novel fistula closure method using the folded BMMF (f-BMMF) invented by the authors is presented.Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open. 02/2014; 2(2):e112.
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ABSTRACT: Velopharyngoplasty is the most commonly used operative technique for the treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency. By attaching a posterior pharyngeal flap to the velum, a nonphysiological situation is created in the upper airway. The aim of this investigation was to find a new surgical approach to physiological reconstruction of the velopharyngeal sphincter. Anatomical investigations were performed in four cadavers. From this study a new surgical technique was developed and called 'levatorplasty': the musculus longus capitis was taken to create a new muscular loop leading to (a) an augmentation of the posterior wall, (b) a medial shift of the lateral pharyngeal wall; and (c) stretching of the velum posteriorly. Thus, the velopharyngeal space was reduced and a physiological closure of the nasal airway space could be obtained. The levatorplasty was employed in nine cleft palate patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency. Pre- and postoperatively the velopharyngeal closure was evaluated by phonetic and radiological examination. The operation was easily performed without major complications. A concentric constriction with decrease of the velopharyngeal space was achieved and a definitive decrease of nasalance and hypernasality resulted. Long-term follow-ups have to verify whether these results will be stable. They also have to be compared with functional improvements following velopharyngoplasty or pharyngoplasty. Of special interest will be evaluation of the altered mobility of the lateral pharyngeal walls.Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery 07/2001; 29(3):143-9. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The levator veli palatini (LVP) muscle has long been recognized as the muscle that contributes most to velopharyngeal (VP) closure and is therefore of principal importance for restoring normal speech in patients with a cleft palate. Different surgical reconstructive procedures can utilize varying degrees of LVP overlap, and this study developed a new finite-element model of VP closure designed to understand the biomechanical effects of LVP overlap. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model was created from adult anatomical dimensions and parameters taken from the literature. Velopharyngeal function was simulated and compared with experimental measurements of velopharyngeal closure force from a previous study. Varying degrees of overlap and separation of the levator veli palatini were simulated and the corresponding closure force was calculated. The computational model compares favorably with the experimental measurements of closure force from the literature. Furthermore, the model predicts that there is an optimal level of overlap that maximizes the potential for the LVP to generate closure force. The model predicts that achieving optimal overlap can increase closure force up to roughly 100% when compared with too little or too much overlap. The results of using this new model of VP closure suggest that optimizing LVP overlap may produce improved surgical outcomes due to the intrinsic properties of muscle. Future work will compare these model predictions with clinical observations and provide further insights into optimal cleft palate repair and other craniofacial surgeries.Journal of Craniofacial Surgery 01/2014; · 0.69 Impact Factor