Unstable metacarpal and phalangeal fracture treatment with screws and plates.
ABSTRACT Plate and screw fixation of the metacarpals and phalanges has limited indications but can provide crucial assistance to the reconstructive hand surgeon in the treatment of complex fractures. Screws are indicated for unstable, long oblique or spiral fractures of the metacarpals and phalanges, intraarticular fractures with articular surface involvement in excess of 25% with or without comminution, and intraarticular condylar, T-condylar, and Y-condylar fractures. Plates at the metacarpal level are indicated for segmental defects with substance loss, fractures with extreme comminution, and unstable short oblique or transverse diaphyseal fractures. Plate fixation of phalangeal fractures is seldom necessary but helpful in treating segmental defects or extreme comminution of diaphysis or metaphysis as well as intraarticular T- or Y-condylar fractures. Screw and plate fixation at the metacarpal levels, when appropriately applied, renders rigid osteosynthesis while inflicting little to no interference on the surrounding soft tissues. Screws can be applied with little to no soft tissue interference throughout the proximal phalanx and proximal and distal aspects of the middle phalanx. Plate fixation for middle phalangeal fractures is limited to salvage situations for preservation of skeletal length. The essentials for successful use of implants are a hand surgeon well versed in a variety of internal fixation techniques including the Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (ASIF) technique of screw and plate fixation, a meticulous respect for, and protection of, the soft tissues, and a facility for delivery of functional aftercare.
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ABSTRACT: The hand is essential in humans for physical manipulation of their surrounding environment. Allowing the ability to grasp, and differentiated from other animals by an opposing thumb, the main functions include both fine and gross motor skills as well as being a key tool for sensing and understanding the immediate surroundings of their owner. Hand fractures are the most common fractures presenting at both accident and emergency and within orthopaedic clinics. Appropriate evaluation at first presentation, as well as during their management, can significantly prevent both morbidity and disability to a patient. These decisions are dependant on a wide range of factors including age, hand dominance, occupation and co-morbidities.A fracture is best described as a soft tissue injury with an associated bony injury. Despite this being the case, this paper intends to deal mainly with the bone injury and aims to discuss both the timing, as well as the methods available, of hand fracture management.The Open Orthopaedics Journal 01/2012; 6:43-53.
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ABSTRACT: The use of bicortical screws to fix metacarpal fractures has been suggested to provide no added biomechanical advantage over unicortical screw fixation. However, this was only demonstrated in static loading regimes, which may not be representative of biological conditions. The present study was done to determine whether similar outcomes are obtained when cyclic loading is applied. Transverse midshaft osteotomies were created in 20 metacarpals harvested from three cadavers. Fractures were stabilised using 2.0 mm mini fragment plates fixed with either bicortical or unicortical screw fixation. These fixations were tested to failure with a three-point bending cyclic loading protocol using an electromechanical microtester and a 1 kN load cell. The mean load to failure was 370 N (SD 116) for unicortical fixation and 450 N (SD 135) for bicortical fixation. Significant differences between these two constructs were observed. A biomechanical advantage was found when using bicortical screws in metacarpal fracture plating.The Journal of hand surgery, European volume. 10/2011; 37(5):396-401.
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ABSTRACT: Locked fixed-angle plating in the hand and wrist helps to optimize outcomes following surgical fixation of select acute fractures and complex reconstructions. Select indications include unstable distal ulna head/neck fractures, periarticular metacarpal and phalangeal fractures, comminuted/multifragmentary diaphyseal fractures with bone loss (ie, combined injuries of the hand), osteopenic/pathologic fractures, nonunions and corrective osteotomy fixation, and small joint arthrodesis. Locked plating techniques in the hand should not be seen as a panacea for wrist and digital acute trauma and delayed reconstructions. An understanding of the biomechanics of fixed-angle plating and proper technical application of locking constructs will optimize outcomes and minimize complications. As clinical experience with locking technology in hand trauma broadens, new indications and applications will emerge. Currently, several systems are available. The specific implants share common features in their protocols for insertion, but unique differences in their design (ie, individual locking mechanisms, uniaxial vs polyaxial locking capability, metallurgy, and plate profiles) must be appreciated and considered preoperatively.Hand clinics 08/2010; 26(3):307-19; v. · 0.69 Impact Factor