Perfluorotributylamine, a liquid fluorochemical used in artificial blood substitution, was evaluated for potential application as a vitreous substitute having heavier density than saline. It was injected into the vitreous of 38 rabbit eyes after mechanical vitrectomy or gas compression of the vitreous with perfluoropropane. The eyes were observed for periods of up to five months. Clinically the liquid occupied the lower vitreous space but gradually dispersed into smaller fluorochemical droplets. In the upper vitreous clusters of cells appeared within three to four weeks which precipitated on the posterior lens surface and in the cortical vitreous. In eyes with experimental retinal detachment perfluorotributylamine had physical properties which provided mechanical retinal tamponade. Its interfacial tension prevented passage through iatrogenic retinal breaks. Histopathologic findings showed irregularly shaped defects in the outer segment disks as early as two days after vitreous replacement. These changes appeared to reverse if perfluorotributylamine was removed after two days. The cellular response in the vitreous consisted primarily of monocyte-derived macrophages capable of ingesting fluorochemical (foam cells).
"These are fully fluorinated alkane compounds with a high specific gravity. However, these compounds turned out to be unsuitable long-term internal tamponade because of the mechanical damage on the retina and the tendency for droplet dispersion   . Presently, these compounds are widely used as intraoperative tools, but not as vitreous sub- stitutes. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the past two decades, many advances have been made in vitrectomy instrumentation, surgical techniques, and the use of different tamponade agents. These agents serve close retinal breaks, confine eventual retinal redetachment, and prevent proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Long-acting gases and silicone oil are effective internal tamponade agents; however, because their specific gravity is lower than that of the vitreous fluid, they may provide adequate support for the superior retina but lack efficacy for the inferior retina, especially when the fill is subtotal. Thus, a specific role may exist for an internal tamponade agent with a higher specific gravity, such as heavy silicone oils (HSOs), Densiron 68, Oxane HD, HWS 45-300, HWS 46-3000, and HeavySil. Some clinical evidence seems to presume that heavy tamponades are more prone to intraocular inflammation than standard silicone if they remain in the eye for several months. In this review, we discuss the fundamental clinical and biochemical/molecular mechanisms involved in the inflammatory response after the use of heavy tamponade: toxicity due to impurities or instability of the agent, direct toxicity and immunogenicity, oil emulsification, and mechanical injury due to gravity. The physical and chemical properties of various HSOs and their efficacy and safety profiles are also described.
BioMed Research International 07/2014; 2014:574825. DOI:10.1155/2014/574825 · 3.17 Impact Factor
"Experimental studies confirmed pathologic vascular and structural changes of the retina after the use of heavy endotamponade agents. A few weeks of endotamponade with perfluorocarbon (PFC) appeared to cause ultrastructural changes in the inferior retina of rabbits [115–117]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myopia is the most common ocular abnormality. Its high and growing prevalence has contributed to a recent surge in surgical interest in the disorder, since retinal detachment in eyes with high myopia differs from that in emmetropic eyes or eyes with low myopia. The myopic eye, because of its specific anatomy, poses special challenges that need to be overcome to ensure the appropriate use of vitreous substitutes. However, intraocular tamponades have shown great potential for revolutionizing retinal detachment surgery and vitreomacular surgery in general in myopic eyes. We provide an updated review of the clinical use of vitreous substitutes in the myopic eye, paying particular attention to analyzing the ideal function of endotamponade agents and comparing the effects of these agents on the physical and biological properties of the eye.
BioMed Research International 07/2014; 2014(2):618382. DOI:10.1155/2014/618382 · 3.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perfluorocarbon liquids (PFCLs) are useful and safe surgical tools in vitreoretinal surgery. The use of PFCL as a tamponade has been controversial due to the corneal toxicity, retinal infiltration, and inflammatory reaction in experimental studies. Several authors have studied in humans the anatomical and functional outcome and adverse effects of perfluorocarbon liquids used as short-, medium-, and long-term tamponade. PFCLs develop dispersion a few days after injection and droplets may move into the anterior chamber and cause corneal endothelial damage. When PFCLs are used as postoperative tamponades for more than one week, a foreign-body inflammatory reaction is observed in up to 30% of cases but such a reaction does not induce PVR, and it resolves after removal of PFCLs. Although most clinical studies have found no signs of retinal toxicity such as progressive visual acuity deterioration or macular anatomical changes, few performed ERG or retinal histological analysis.
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