Different reactivity of Z-DNA antibodies with human chromosomes modified by actinomycin D and 5-bromodeoxyuridine.
ABSTRACT Antibodies against Z-DNA react with fixed metaphase chromosomes of man and other mammals. Indirect immunofluorescence staining shows that chromosomal segments corresponding to R- and T-bands preferentially fix Z-DNA antibodies. In this work Z-DNA antibodies were used as a probe for DNA conformation in euchromatin of fixed human chromosomes whose condensation or staining were modified by actinomycin D (AMD) and by 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Treatments with AMD and BrdU were performed to induce a G-banding by modification of chromosomal segments corresponding to R- and T-bands. Long BrdU treatments were used to induce asymmetrical and partially undercondensed chromosomes by substitution of thymidine in one or both DNA strand. Our results show a clear difference of Z-DNA antibodies reactivity after AMD or BrdU treatment. The G-banding obtained after AMD treatment is not reversed by Z-DNA antibodies staining since these antibodies bind very weakly to the undercondensed R-bands. On the other hand, the G-banding obtained by BrdU is completely reversed giving typical R-banding, as on untreated chromosomes. For asymmetrical chromosomes an R-, T-banding pattern is always observed but there is a decrease of the fluorescence intensity proportional to the degree of BrdU incorporation. We conclude that AMD treatment greatly disturbs Z-DNA antibodies binding suggesting a change in DNA conformation, whereas BrdU treatments do not suppress but only weaken the specific binding of Z-DNA antibodies on R- and T-bands. The direct involvement of thymidine substitution in DNA sequences recognized by Z-DNA antibodies is discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Triplex DNA is an unusual conformation of DNA formed when two pyrimidine nucleotide strands share a common purine strand. A monoclonal antibody, demonstrated by numerous criteria to be specific for triplex DNA, was used to investigate the presence and distribution of this unique DNA configuration in nuclei and chromosomes of mouse LM cells and human lymphocytes. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that constitutive heterochromatin in acetic-methanol fixed mouse nuclei was usually, but not always immunofluorescent, suggesting possible cell cycle related variations in the amount of triplex DNA or its accessibility in this condensed chromatin. In fixed mouse and human chromosomes, there was a positive correlation between immunofluorescent staining patterns, Hoechst 33258 banding, and G- and/or C-banding patterns. Unfixed, isolated mouse chromosomes also reacted positively with the antibody, particularly when they were gently decondensed by exposure to low ionic conditions at neutral pH. This result indicates that fixation is not mandatory for antibody staining, suggesting that some mammalian chromosomal DNA may be naturally organized in a triplex configuration. However, there is a possibility that fixation may facilitate the formation of additional triplex DNA complexes in potential sequences or expose previously inaccessible triplex DNA. The precise correspondence between the immunofluorescent patterns produced by anti-triplex DNA antibodies and G- and C-bands known to represent regions of chromatin condensation, suggests a potential role of triplex DNA in chromosome structure and regional chromatin condensation.Chromosoma 12/1988; 97(3):185-92. DOI:10.1007/BF00292959 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This review is based on a thorough description of the structure and sequence organization of tandemly organized repetitive DNA sequence families in the human genome; it is aimed at revealing the locus-specific sequence organization of tandemly repetitive sequence structures as a highly conserved DNA sequence code. These repetitive so-called "super-structures" or "higher-order" structures are able to attract specific nuclear proteins. I shall define this code therefore as a "chromatin folding code". Since locus-specific superstructures of tandemly repetitive sequence units are present not only in the chromosome centromere or telomere region but also on the arms of the chromosomes, I assume that their chromatin folding code may contribute to, or even organize, the folding pathway of the chromatin chain in the nucleus. The "chromatin folding code" is based on its specific "chromatin code", which describes the sequence dependence of the helical pathway of the DNA primary sequence (i.e., secondary structure) entrapping the histone octamers in preferential positions. There is no periodicity in the distribution of the nucleosomes along the DNA chain. The folding pathway of the nucleosomal chromatin chain is however still flexible and determined by e.g., the length of the DNA chain between the nucleosomes. The fixation and stabilization of the chromatin chain in the space of the nucleus (i.e., its "functional state") may be mediated by additionally unique DNA protein interactions that are dictated by the "chromatin folding code". The unique DNA-protein interactions around the centromeres of human chromosomes are revealed for example by their "C-banding". I wish to stress that it is not my aim to relate each block of repetitive DNA sequences to a specific "chromatin folding code", but I shall demonstrate that there is an inherent potential for tandem repeated sequence units to develop a locus-specific repetitive higher order structure; this potential may create a specific chromatin folding code whenever a selection force exists at the position of this repetitive DNA structure in the genome.Human Genetics 04/1990; 84(4):301-36. DOI:10.1007/BF00196228 · 4.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purine.pyrimidine (pur.pyr) DNA tracts are prevalent in eukaryotic genomes. They can adopt a triplex conformation in vitro under conditions that may exist in vivo, suggesting that triplex (H-) DNA may exist naturally in chromosomes. To explore this possibility and gain insight concerning potential functions, the distribution of triplex DNA was studied in fixed polytene chromosomes of Chironomus tentans and Drosophila melanogaster by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy using an anti-triplex DNA monoclonal antibody (Jel 318). Chromosomes stained with this antibody exhibited immunopositive regions corresponding to condensed chromatin bands; interbands were less immunofluorescent. These results imply that there is more triplex DNA in bands than in interbands. In Chironomus, nucleolar organizer regions and Balbiani rings were immunonegative, indicating that triplex DNA is not present in decondensed, transcriptionally active chromatin. A few specific bands in both Chironomus and Drosophila were intensely immunofluorescent. In Drosophila, one such region was 81F on chromosome 3R. Competition during staining with exogenously added sequences corresponding to a constituent 1.672 g/cm3 satellite DNA in region 81F failed to abolish the immunofluorescence, suggesting that the satellite DNA does not fortuitously react with Jel 318 and implying that unidentified pur.pyr sequences forming triplex DNA are also present at this location. Region 81F exhibits ectopic pairing with nonrelated chromosome regions that have also proven to be intensely immunopositive; this suggests that the formation of triplex DNA between common, shared pur.pyr sequences in these otherwise nonhomologous bands might account for the ectopic pairing phenomenon. Together with our previous results, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that triplex DNA may play a role in chromosome organization by participating in regional chromatin condensation.Chromosoma 11/1991; 101(1):11-8. DOI:10.1007/BF00360681 · 3.26 Impact Factor