Spinal versus intraventricular chronic opiate administration with implantable drug delivery devices for cancer pain.
ABSTRACT Early publications have separately reported the efficacy, specificity and conservative character of direct spinal and intraventricular morphine analgesia in the treatment of intractable cancer pain. The objectives of this study are to compare efficacy and safety of these sites of local administration in order to determine the indication for each, the clinical effects of different opiates and the choice of various drug administration devices.
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Article: Intrathecal pumps.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Direct neuroaxis drug delivery has expanded the physician's armamentarium to provide treatment options to those who have failed more conservative interventions. Starting from Bier's 'cocainization of the spinal cord' in 1898, direct nervous system pharmacy delivery has long been recognized as an effective means to treat pain. Intrathecal pump systems are now commonplace in the management of numerous pain states, as well as of neuromuscular sequelae of central nervous system injury. There has been much advancement in the physiologic and pharmacologic understanding of direct neuromodulation, providing a growing number of treatment options depending on the specific disease state. As well, surgical techniques and catheter systems have undergone refinements providing improved long-term safety and efficacy. We present a review of the historical evolution to current intrathecal therapies, as well as a dialog regarding patient selection, drug options, and side effects. Also, included is a discussion of surgical techniques, current delivery options and complications concerning pump placement.Neurotherapeutics 02/2008; 5(1):114-22. · 5.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A number of pre-clinical studies have demonstrated the value of adrenal medullary allografts in the management of chronic pain. The present longitudinal survey studied 15 patients transplanted for intractable cancer pain after failure of systemic opioids due to the persistence of undesirable side-effects. Before inclusion, all the patients had their pain controlled by daily intrathecal (I-Th) morphine administration. The main evaluation criteria of analgesic activity of the chromaffin cell allograft was the complementary requirement of analgesics and in particular the consumption of I-Th morphine required to maintain effective pain control. Out of the 12 patients who profited from enhanced analgesia with long-term follow-up (average 4.5 months), five no longer required the I-Th morphine (with prolonged interruption of systemic opioids as well), two durably decreased I-Th morphine intake and five were stabilized until the end of their follow-up. Durable decline and stabilization were interpreted as indicative of analgesic activity by comparison with the usual dose escalation observed during disease progression. In most cases, we noted a relationship between analgesic responses and CSF met-enkephalin levels. The results of this phase II open study demonstrate the feasibility and the safety of this approach using chromaffin cell grafts for long-term relief of intractable cancer pain. However, while analgesic efficacy was indicated by the reduction or stabilization in complementary opioid intake, these observations will need to be confirmed in a controlled trial in a larger series of patients.Pain 08/2000; 87(1):19-32. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intrathecal delivery of medications for the management of chronic pain syndromes reflects a modern targeted delivery system with the potential for even greater efficacy than is outlined in Tables 1 and 2. The twentieth century ushered in the development of parenteral approaches of medical therapy for chronic pain and other diseases that were superior to the traditional oral delivery methods known in the preceding century. Targeted drug delivery represents a significant advancement in the treatment of patients with chronic pain and is likely be the method of choice for the twenty-first century. This method of delivery is best represented by current drug delivery systems, such as the intrathecal drug pump. Traditional pharmacologic agents will still be used in the twenty-first century; however, the development of novel compounds, transplanted tissues, and genetic engineering will likely usher in a new era of pain management, including their use as analgesics for intraspinal infusion.Neurosurgery Clinics of North America 08/2003; 14(3):353-64. · 1.90 Impact Factor