Article

Estimation of fetal weight with the use of head, body and femur length—A prospective study

American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Impact Factor: 3.97). 03/1985; 151(3):333-7. DOI: 10.1016/0002-9378(85)90298-4
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ABSTRACT In utero estimates of fetal weight were evaluated prospectively in 109 fetuses with the use of sonographic models developed in a previous study. This report confirms that the best in utero weight estimates result from the use of models based on measurements of head size, abdominal size, and femur length. Since the accuracy of these models (1 SD = 7.5%) is significantly better than those based on measurements of head and body (e.g., biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference), we recommend routine use of such models in obstetric sonography.

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    • "The fetal parameters recorded (in mm) were femur length (FL), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), and biparietal diameter (BPD). Estimated fetal weight (EFW) was calculated using the Hadlock algorithm (Hadlock et al. 1985). We had access to the records of any other ultrasound performed to women in the same hospital unit "
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    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates may affect fetal growth; however, previous findings are inconsistent and based on few studies. We assessed whether prenatal exposure to BPA and phthalates were associated with fetal growth in a Spanish birth cohort of 488 mother-child pairs. We measured BPA and eight phthalates [four di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites (DEHPm), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and three low molecular weight phthalate metabolites (LMWPm)] in two spot-urine samples collected during the first and third trimester of pregnancy. We estimated growth curves for femur length (FL), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), biparietal diameter (BPD), and estimated fetal weight (EFW) during pregnancy (weeks 12-20 and 20-34), and for birth weight, birth length, head circumference at birth, and placental weight. Overall, results did not support associations between exposure to BPA or DEHPm during pregnancy and fetal growth parameters. Prenatal MBzP exposure was positively associated with FL at 20-34 weeks resulting in an increase of 3.70% of the average FL (95% CI: 0.75, 6.63%) per doubling of MBzP concentration. MBzP was positively associated with birth weight among boys (48 g; 95% CI: 6, 90) but not in girls (-27 g; 95% CI: -79, 25) (interaction p-value = 0.04). The LMWPm mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) was negatively associated with HC at 12-20 pregnancy weeks (-4.88% of HC average [95% CI: -8.36, -1.36%]). This study, one of the first to combine repeat exposure biomarker measurements and multiple growth measures during pregnancy, finds little evidence of associations of BPA or phthalate exposures with fetal growth. Phthalate metabolites MBzP and MnBP were associated with some fetal growth parameters, but these findings require replication.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 07/2015; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1409190 · 7.98 Impact Factor
    • "The FL was obtained in a horizontal view, measuring the full femur excluding the epiphysis from one end of the diaphysis to the other. Estimated fetal weight (EFW), was calculated from measurements of AC and FL, using the Hadlock formula (Log 10 EFW = 1.304 + (0.05281 × AC) + (0.1938 × FL) − (0.004 × AC × FL) [41]. "
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    ABSTRACT: To test for gender-differences in the relation between mothers' antenatal anxiety and infants' body weight during gestation, at birth, and at 1-month of age. Two hundred and twelve randomly-recruited women were divided into two groups: Controls (n=105) and Anxious Group (n=107) based on a standard cut-off of the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Outcome measures were Fetal Weight derived from biometrics obtained from an ultrasound scan in the 3rd trimester and infants' weight at birth and at 1-month of age, both obtained from medical records. Multivariate analyses showed main effects of Gender on infants' birth weight (P=.001) and on infants' weight at 1-month of age (P=.004), but no main effects of Anxiety Group at any time-point. Gender x Anxiety Group interactions at all three time points (Fetal weight: P=.05; Birth weight: P=.03; 1-month of age: P=.10) reflected gender differences (males>females) among infants in the anxious group, but not among controls. Distinct trends regarding same sex comparisons across groups (Control vs. Anxiety) were in line with predictions (male controls<male anxious; female controls>females anxious). Controlling for Postpartum Anxiety and Antenatal and Postpartum Depression in the models did not affect primary results. Gender differences in fetal and birth weight were more substantial among infants of anxious mothers than among controls due to the seemingly accelerated growth of "anxious" males and the diminution of weight among "anxious" females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of psychosomatic research 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2015.07.006 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    • "The Hadlock equation was used to estimate prenatal fetal weight [19] . "
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